2016
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The Effect of Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Mesoporous SilicaHydroxyapatite Hybrid Nanocomposites
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2
This work focused on the influence of processing conditions on the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) and PP/mesoporous silicahydroxyapatite (PP/MCM41HA) hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of PP were enhanced by adding MCM41HA nanoparticles. Neat PP and hybrid nanocomposites based on PP, containing maleic anhydridegrafted polypropylene (PPgMA) and MCM41HA, were prepared using the melt intercalation technique in an internal mixer. To optimize the processing conditions, both mixing temperature and rotor rotational speed were varied. Tensile and flexural tests were performed to evaluate some mechanical characteristics (stressstrain curves, tensile strength, tensile modulus, strain at rupture, flexural strength. and flexural modulus) of both the neat PP and PP/ MCM41HA hybrid nanocomposite materials. The results showed that two of the materials’ mechanical properties were most affected by two preparation parameters: shear rate and the distribution process of nanocomposites were found to be optimized using a mixing temperature of 180° C and a rotor rotational speed of 100 rpm to achieve the best mechanical properties. Under these conditions, the best mixing time was 3 min according to the torque diagram. Moreover, the PP/MCM41HA hybrid nanocomposite demonstrated a sensible enhancement of mechanical properties over neat PP.
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73
82


A.R.
Albooyeh
School of Engineering, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran
School of Engineering, Damghan University,
Iran
a.albooyeh@du.ac.ir


S.
Tarahomi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan
Iran


A.B.
Fereidoon
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan
Iran


Z.
Taherian
Department of Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Department of Materials Engineering, Semnan
Iran
Nanocomposite
experimental study
Mechanical properties
Mesoporous silica
Hydroxyapatite
[[1] Wei L, Hu N, Zhang Y. Synthesis of PolymerMesoporous Silica Nanocomposites. Mater 2010; 3(7): 406679. ##[2] Beck JS, Vartuli JC, Roth WJ, Leonowicz ME, Kresge CT, Schmitt KD, Chu CTW, Olson DH, Sheppard EW. A New Family of Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Prepared with Liquid Crystal Templates. J Am Chem Soc 1992; 114(27): 1083443. ##[3] Huo Q, Margolese DI, Ciesla U, Feng P, Gier TE, Sieger P, Leon R, Petroff P, Schuth F, Stucky GD. Generalized Syntheses of Periodic Surfactant/Inorganic Composite Materials. Nat 1994; 368(6469): 31721. ##[4] Mokaya R, Jones W. Aluminosilicate Mesoporous Molecular Sieves with Enhanced Stability Obtained by Reacting MCM41 with Aluminium Chlorohydrate. Chem Commun 1998; 7(17): 183940. ##[5] Wang N, Zhao C, Shi Z, Shao Y, Li H, Gao N. CoIncorporation of MMT and MCM41 Nanomaterials Used as Fillers in PP Composite. Mater Sci Eng B 2009; 157(13): 447. ##[6] Liu Y, Wang M. Fabrication and Characteristics of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Polypropylene as a Bone Analogue Biomaterial. J Appl Polym Sci 2007; 106(4): 278090. ##[7] Younesi M, Baharololoom ME. Effect of Molecular Weight, Particle Size and Ringer’s Solution on Mechanical Properties of Surfacetreated PolypropyleneHydroxyapatite Biocomposites. J Compos Mater 2010; 44(24): 278599. ##[8] Younesi M, Bahrololoom ME. Formulating the Effects of Applied Temperature and Pressure of Hot Pressing Process on the Mechanical Properties of PolypropyleneHydroxyapatite BioComposites by Response Surface Methodology. Mater Des 2010; 31(10): 462130. ##[9] Li K, Tjong SC. Preparation and Characterization of Isotactic Polypropylene Reinforced with Hydroxyapatite Nanorods. J Macromol Sci B 2011; 50(10): 198395. ##[10] Modesti M, Lorenzetti A, Bon D, Besco S. Thermal Behaviour of Compatibilised Polypropylene Nanocomposite: Effect of Processing Conditions. Polym Degrad Stab 2006; 91(4): 67280. ##[11] Ryu SH, Chang YW. Factors Affecting the Dispersion of Montmorillonite in LLDPE Nanocomposite. Polym Bull 2005; 55(5): 38592. ##[12] Vermogen A, MasenelliVarlot K, Seguela R, DuchetRumeau J, Boucard S, Prele P. Evaluation of the Structure and Dispersion in PolymerLayered Silicate Nanocomposites. Macromol 2005; 38(23): 96619. ##[13] Lertwimolnun W, Vergnes B. Influence of Compatibilizer and Processing Conditions on the Dispersion of Nanoclay in a Polypropylene Matrix. Polym 2005; 46(10): 346271. ##[14] Furlan LG, Ferreira CI, Castel CD, Santos KS, Mello ACE, Liberman SA, Oviedo MAS, Mauler RS. Effect of Processing Conditions on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of HighImpact Polypropylene Nanocomposites. Mater Sci Eng A 2011; 528(2223): 67158. ##[15] AlMalaika S, Sheena H, Fischer D, Masarati E. Influence of Processing and Clay Type on Nanostructure and Stability of PolypropyleneClay Nanocomposites. Poly Degrad Stab 2013; 98(12): 240010. ##[16] Luijsterburg BJ, Kort GW, Drongelen M, Govaert LE, Goossens JGP. Fast cooling of (non)nucleated virgin and recycled poly (propylenes): Effect of processing conditions on structural and mechanical properties. Thermochimica Acta 2014; 603:94–102. ##[17] Macadeo S, Lafranche E, Martins C, Douchain C, Loux C, Krawczak P. Thin wall injectionovermoulding of polyamide 6/polypropylene multilayer parts: influence of processing conditions on thermomechanical properties of the layer assembly. Int J Mater Prod Technol 2016; 52(12): 5375. ##[18] Delva L, Rageart K, Allear K, GasparCunha A, Degrieck J, Cardon L. Influence of twinscrew configuration on the mechanical and morphological properties of polypropyleneclay composites. Int J Mater Prod Technol 2016; 52(12): 17692. ##[19] Motamedi P, Bagheri R. Modification of nanostructure and improvement of mechanical properties of polypropylene/polyamide 6/layered silicate ternary nanocomposites through variation of processing rout. Compos Part B: Eng 2016; 85: 20715. ##[20] Caelers HJM, Govaert LE, Peters GWM. The prediction of mechanical performance of isotactic polypropylene on the basis of processing conditions. Polym 2016; 83: 11628. ##[21] Yousefpour M, Taherian Z. The Effects of Ageing Time on the Microstructure and Properties of Mesoporous SilicaHydroxyapatite Nanocomposite. Superlattices Microstruct 2013; 54(1): 7886. ##[22] Diaz A, Lopez T, Manjarrez J, Basaldella E, MartinezBlanes JM, Odriozola JA. Growth of Hydroxyapatite in a Biocompatible Mesoporous Ordered Silica. Acta Biomater 2006; 2(2): 1739. ##[23] Sousa A, Souza KC, Sousa EM. Mesoporous Silica/Apatite Nanocomposite: Special Synthesis Route to Control Local Drug Delivery. Acta Biomater 2008; 4(3): 6719. ##[24] Saha MC, Kabir MD, Jeelani S. Enhancement in Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane Foam Infused with Nanoparticles. Mater Sci Eng A 2008; 479(12): 21322. ##[25] Wang N, Gao N, Jiang S, Fang Q, Chen E. Effect of Different Structure MCM41 Fillers with PPgMA on Mechanical and Crystallization Performances of Polypropylene. Compos Part B 2011; 42(6): 15717. ##[26] Ji X, Hampsey JE, Hu Q, He J, Yang Z, Lu Y. Mesoporous SilicaReinforced Polymer Nanocomposites. Chem Mater 2003; 15(19): 365662. ##[27] Wang N, Fang Q, Shao Y, Zhang J. Microstructure and Properties of Polypropylene Composites Filled with CoIncorporation of MCM41(with Template) and OMMT Nanoparticles Prepared by MeltCompounding. Mater Sci Eng A 2009; 512(12): 328. ##[28] Li K, Tjong SC. Preparation and Mechanical and Tribological Properties of HighDensity Polyethylene/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites. J of Macromol Sci B 2011; 50(7): 132537. ##[29] Weidinger A, Hermans PH. On the Determination of the Crystalline Fraction of Isotactic Polypropylene from XRay Diffraction. Macromol Chem Phys 1961; 50(1): 98115. ##[30] Alexander LE, XRay Diffraction Methods in Polymer Science. New York: Wiely; 1969.##]
The Effect of External Skin on Buckling Strength of Composite Lattice Cylinders Based on Numerical and Experimental Analysis
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Currently, lattice composite structures have many applications in aerospace industries. The present research analyzed the effect of an external skin consisting of a lattice’s cylindrical shell on the buckling strength of composite materials, both numerically and experimentally. Two classes of specimens, with and without external skins, were fabricated using the filament winding process. To find the buckling strength of the fabricated samples, tests were carried out. For validation of the experimental results, the finite element method was used to test the shells under the same testing conditions. The results of the experimental and numerical tests showed good agreement with one another, revealing that the lattice cylindrical shell specimen with the outer skin had a much higher buckling strength than the one without the outer skin (≈50%). The added weight of the outer skin was negligible compared to the overall weight of the lattice cylindrical shell, and the external skin had a tremendous positive effect on the buckling strength to weight ratio of the lattice composite structures.
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83
87


M.R.
Zamani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N.
Iran
a_mrzamani@mut.ac.ir


S.M.R.
Khalili
Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N.
Iran
Lattice structures
buckling
FEM
Stiffened composite cylindrically shell
[[1] Kidane S, Li G, Helms J and et al. Buckling load analysis of grid stiffened composite cylinders, Compos Part B 2003; 34: 19. ##[2] Ghasemi MA, Yazdani M, Hoseini SM. Analysis of effective parameters on the buckling of grid stiffened composite shells based on first order shear deformation theory. Modares Mech Eng J 2013; 13(10): 5161. ##[3] Khalili SMR, Azarafza R, Davar A. Transient dynamic response of initially stressed composite circular cylindrical shells under radial impulse load. Compos Struct 2009; 89: 275284. ##[4] Arashmehr J, Rahimi GH, Rasouli SF. Numerical and experimental stress analysis of stiffened cylindrical composite shell under transverse end load, World Acad Sci Eng Technol 2012; 6: 0722. ##[5] Ghasemi MA, Yazdani M, Soltan Abadi E, Buckling behave investigation of grid stiffened composite conical shells under axial loading, Modares Mech Eng J 2014; 14(15): 170176. ##[6] Vasiliev VV, Barynin VA, Rasin AF. Anisogrid composite lattice structures – Development and aerospace applications, Compos Struct 2012; 94: 11171127. ##[7] Bisagni C, Cordisco P. Postbuckling and collapse experiments of stiffened composite cylindrical shells subjected to axial loading and torque, Compos Struct 2006; 73: 138149. ##[8] Buragohain M, Velmurugan R. Buckling analysis of composite hexagonal lattice cylindrical shell using smeared stiffener model, Defense Sci J 2009; 59(3): 230238. ##[9] Rahimi GH, Zandi M, Rasouli SF. Analysis of the effect of stiffener profile on buckling strength in composite isogrid stiffened shell under axial loading, Aerosp Sci Technol 2013; 24: 198203. ##[10] Huang L, Sheikh AH, Ng C and et al. An efficient finite element model for buckling analysis of grid stiffened laminated composite plates, Compos Struct 2015; 122: 4150. ##[11] Sun J, Lim CW, Xu X and et al. Accurate buckling solutions of gridstiffened functionally graded cylindrical shells under compressive and thermal loads, Compos Part B 2016; 89: 96107.##]
Analytical Solution for Sound Radiation of Vibrating Circular Plates coupled with Piezoelectric Layers
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2
In the present study, the classical plate theory (CPT) was used to study sound radiation of forced vibrating thin circular plates coupled with piezoelectric layers using simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The novelty of the study consists of an exact closedform solution that was developed without any use of approximation. Piezoelectric, electrical potential loaded in the transverse direction satisfied the electric boundary conditions (open circuit) and Maxwell's electricity equation. It was assumed that no fluid loading occurred on the plate structure. The sound pressure and the sound power of the radiator were analytically obtained in a far field by using the Rayleigh integral. The proposed analytical method was validated using available data from the literature. Additionally, a few 2D plots of the directivity pattern were illustrated for thin circular plates coupled with piezoelectric layers. Finally, the effect of boundary conditions, piezoelectric thickness, and the piezoelectric layer on the acoustical parameters were examined and discussed in details.
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89
98


K.
Khorshidi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak
Iran
kkhorshidi@araku.ac.ir


M.
Pagoli
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak
Iran
Circular plates
Sound power
Classical plate theory
Piezoelectric layer
[[1] Wang Q Quek ST, Sun CT, Liu X. Analysis of piezoelectric coupled circular plate. Smart Mater Struct 2001; 10: 229239. ##[2] Hagood NW, McFarland AJ, Modeling of a piezoelectric rotary ultrasonic motor. IEEE Transactions on Ultrason, Ferroelectrics Freq Control 1995; 42: 210224. ##[3] HeyligerPR, Ramirez G. Free vibration of laminated piezoelectric plates and discs. J Sound Vib 2000; 229: 935956. ##[4] HosseiniHashemi Sh, Khorshidi K, Es’haghi M, Fadaee M, Karimi M. On the effects of coupling between inplane and outofplane vibrating modes of smart functionally graded circular/annular plates. Appl Math Modell 2012; 36: 1132–1147. ##[5] Khorshidi K, Rezaei E, Ghadimi AA, Pagoli M. Active vibration control of circular plates coupled with piezoelectric layers excited by plane sound wave. Appl Math Modell 2015; 39(3–4): 1217–1228 ##[6] Rayleigh L. The Theory of Sound, Second edition, Reprinted by Dover, New York, 1945. ##[7] Lomas NS, Hayek SI. Vibration and acoustic radiation of elastically supported rectangular plates. J Sound Vib 1977; 2: 1–25. ##[8] Cremer L, Heckl M. StructureBorne Sound. Second edition, SpringerVerlag, New York, 1987. ##[9] Berry A Guyader J, Nicolas, J. A general formulation for the sound radiation from rectangular, baffled plates with arbitrary boundary conditions. J Acoust Soc Am 1990; 88: 2792–2802. ##[10] Yoo JW. Study on the general characteristics of the sound radiation of a rectangular plate with different boundary edge conditions. J Mech Sci Technol 2010; 24: 1111–1118. ##[11] Rdzanek WP. The sound power of an individual mode of a clampedfree annular plate. J Sound Vib 2003; 261: 775–790. ##[12] Khorshidi K. Vibroacoustic analysis of Mindlin rectangular plates resting on an elastic foundation. Scientia Iranica A 2011; 18: 45–52. ##[13] HosseiniHashemi S, Khorshidi K, Rokni Damavandi Taher H. Exact acoustical analysis of vibrating rectangular plates with two opposite edges simply supported via Mindlin plate theory. J Sound Vib 2009; 322: 883–900. ##[14] Hongqiu L, Guoping C, Linyan X. Structuralacoustic coupling and external sound pressure of a plateended cylindrical shell based on analytic method, Proc 2nd Int Conf Comput Eng Technol 2010; 5: 51–55. ##[15] Zhou L, Zheng H, Hung KC. Sound radiation from a thin infinite plate in contact with a layered inhomogeneous fluid. Appl Acoust 2002; 63: 11771192. ##[16] Frank F, Paolo G. Sound Radiation by Vibrating Structures. Second edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, 2007; 135241. ##[17] Zhang X, Li WL. A unified approach for predicting sound radiation from baffled rectangular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions. J Sound Vib 2010; 329: 5307–5320. ##[18] Lee M, Singh R. Analytical formulations for annular disk sound radiation using structural modes. J Acoust Soc Am 1994; 95: 3311–3323. ##[19] Lee H, Singh R. Acoustic radiation from outofplane modes of an annular disk using thin and thick plate theories. J Sound Vib 2005; 282: 313–339. ##[20] Lee H, Singh R. Determination of sound radiation from a simpliﬁed diskbrake rotor by a semianalytical method. Noise Control Eng J 2004; 52: 225–239.##]
Sizedependent Effects on the Vibration Behavior of a Timoshenko Microbeam subjected to Prestress Loading based on DQM
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2
In this paper, sizedependent effects on the vibration behavior of Timoshenko microbeams under prestress loading embedded in an elastic foundation, using modified strain gradient theory (MSGT) and surface stress effects, were studied. To consider the surface stress effects, the Gurtin–Murdoch continuum mechanical approach was employed. Using Hamilton’s principle, the governing equations of motion and boundary conditions were obtained and solved numerically using the differential quadrature method (DQM). The effects of prestress loading, surface residual stress, surface mass density, Young’s modulus applied to the surface layer, three material length scale parameters, and the elastic foundation coefficients were investigated. For higher aspect ratios, this study found that the effect of the prestress loading was negligible for higher modes. Considering sizedependent effects led to increase the stiffness of the matrix and enhance the dimensionless natural frequencies of the Timoshenko microbeam. The MSGT results were higher than those found using other theories. In addition, this research discovered that there were negligible surface stress effects with each of the three material length scale parameters.
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99
112


M.
Mohammadimehr
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of
Iran
mmohammadimehr@kashanu.ac.ir


H.
Mohammadi Hooyeh
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of
Iran


H.
Afshari
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of
Iran


M.R.
Salarkia
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of
Iran
Size dependent effect
Prestress loading
DQM
Vibration behavior of Timoshenko microbeam
[[1]Ramezani S. A micro scale geometrically nonlinear Timoshenko beam model based on strain gradient elasticity theory, Int J Nonlinear Mech 2012; 47: 86373. ##[2] Rahaeifard M,Kahrobaiyan MH, Ahmadian MT. Sensitivity analysis of atomic force microscope cantilever made of functionally graded materials; ASME, 2009. ##[3] Simsek M, Yurtcu HH. Analytical solutions for bending and buckling of functionally gradednanobeams based on the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, Compos Struct 2013; 97: 37886. ##[4] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Kolahchi R, Mosayebi M, Jamali M. Pulsating fluid induced dynamic instability of viscodoublewalled carbon nanotubes based on sinusoidal strain gradient theory using DQM and Bolotin method, Int J Mech Mater Des 2016; 12: 1738. ##[5] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Dashti P, Amir S,Yousefi M. Nonlinear vibration of coupled nano and microstructures conveying fluid based on Timoshenko beam model under twodimensional magnetic field, Acta Mech 2015; 226: 272960. ##[6]Simsek M. Large amplitude free vibration of nanobeams with various boundary conditions based on the nonlocal elasticity theory, Compos Part B 2014; 56: 62128. ##[7] Sahmani S, Bahrami M. Sizedependent dynamic stability analysis of microbeams actuated by piezoelectric voltage based on strain gradient elasticity theory, J Mech Sci Tech 2015; 29: 32533. ##[8] Mohammadimehr M, Golzari E. The elliptic phenomenon effect of cross section on the torsional buckling of a nanocomposite beam reinforced by a singlewalled carbon nanotube, Proc Instit Mech Eng, Part N: J Nanoeng Nanosys 2016; 230: 5567. ##[9] Mohammadimehr M, Rahmati AR. Small scale effect on electrothermomechanical vibration analysis of singlewalled boron nitride nanorods under electric excitation, Turkish J Eng, Env Sci 2013; 37: 115. ##[10] Atabakhshian V, Shooshtari A, Karimi M. Electrothermal vibration of a smart coupled nanobeam system with an internal flow based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Phys B 2015; 456: 37582. ##[11] Ansari R, Rouhi H, Sahmani S. Free vibration analysis of single and doublewalled carbon nanotubes based on nonlocal elastic shell models, J Vib Cont 2014; 20: 67078. ## [12] Akgoz B, Civalek O. A sizedependent shear deformation beam model based on the strain gradient elasticity theory, Int J Eng Sci 2013; 70: 114. ##[13]Asgharifard Sharabiani P, Haeri Yazdi MR. Nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded nanobeams with surface effects, Compos Part B 2013; 45: 58186. ##[14]Ke LL, Wang YS,Wang ZD. Nonlinear vibration of the piezoelectric nanobeams based on the nonlocal theory, Compos Struct 2012; 94: 203847. ##[15] Ansari R, Gholami R, Faghih Shojaei M, Mohammadi V, Sahmani S. Sizedependent bending, buckling and free vibration of functionally graded Timoshenko microbeams based on the most general strain gradient theory, Compos Struct 2013; 100: 38597. ## [16] Tounsi A, AlBasyouni AS, Mahmoud SR. Size dependent bending and vibration analysis of functionally graded microbeams based on modified couple stress theory and neutral surface position, Compos Struct 2015; 125: 621630. ##[17] Nazemnezhad R, Salimi M. Hosseini Hashemi SH, Asgharifard Sharabiani P. An analytical study on the nonlinear free vibration of nanoscale beams incorporating surface density effects. Compos Part B 2012; 43: 2893973. ##[18] Nejat Pishkenari H, Afsharmanesh B, Akbari E. Surface Elasticity and Size Effect on the Vibrational Behavior of Silicon Nanoresonators, Current Appl Phys, 2015; 15: 13891396. ##[19] Yue YM, Xu KY, Chen T. A micro scale Timoshenko beam model for piezoelectricity with flexoelectricity and surface effects, Compos Struct 2016; 136: 278286. ##[20] Preethi K, Rajagopal A, Reddy JN. Surface and Nonlocal Effects for nonlinear analysis of Timoshenko beams, Int J Nonlinear Mech 2015; 76: 100111. ##[21] Ke LL, Yang J, Kitipornchai S, Xiang Y. Flexural Vibration and Elastic Buckling of a Cracked Timoshenko Beam Made of Functionally Graded Materials, Mech Adv Mater Struct 2009; 16: 488502. ##[22] Mohammadimehr M, Monajemi AA, Moradi M. Vibration analysis of viscoelastic tapered microrod based on strain gradient theory resting on viscopasternak foundation using DQM, J Mech Sci Tech 2015; 29: 2297305. ##[23] Kahrobaiyan MH, Asghari M, Ahmadian MT. A strain gradient Timoshenko beam element: application to MEMS, Acta Mech 2015, 226: 50525. ##[24] Allahbakhshi A, Allahbakhshi M. Vibration analysis of nanostructure multilayered graphenesheets using modified strain gradient theory, Front Mech Eng 2015; 10: 18797. ##[25] Akgoz B, Civalek O. Strain gradient elasticity and modified couple stress models for buckling analysis of axially loaded microscaled beams, Int J Eng Sci 2011; 49: 126880. ##[26] Mohammad Abadi M, Daneshmehr AR. An investigation of modified couple stress theory in buckling analysis of micro composite laminated Euler–Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams, Int J Eng Sci 2014; 75: 4053. ##[27] Rajabi F, Ramezani S. A nonlinear microbeam model based on strain gradient elasticity theory, Acta Mech Solida Sinica 2013; 26: 2134. ##[28] Ansari R, Mohammadi V, Faghih Shojaei M, Gholami R, Sahmani S. On the forced vibration analysis of Timoshenko nanobeams based on the surface stress elasticity theory, Compos. Part B: Eng 2014; 60: 15866. ## [29] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Kolahchi R, Khoddami Maraghi Z. Nonlinear vibration and instability of embedded doublewalled boron nitride nanotubes based on nonlocal cylindrical shell theory, Appl Math Model 2013; 37: 76857707. ##[30] Murmu T, Pradhan SC. Buckling analysis of a singlewalled carbon nanotube embedded in an elastic medium based on nonlocal elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory and using DQM, Phys E 2009; 41: 123239. ##[31] Zhang B, He Y, Liu D, Gan Z, Shen L. Nonclassical Timoshenko beam element based on the strain gradient elasticity theory, Finite Elem Anal Des 2014; 79: 2239. ##[32] DehrouyehSemnani AM, NikkhahBahrami M. A discussion on evaluation of material length scale parameter based on microcantilever test, Compos Struct 2015; 122: 425429. ##[33] Ansari R, Gholami R, Sahmani S. Free vibration analysis of sizedependent functionally graded microbeams based on the strain gradient Timoshenko beam theory, Compos Struct 2011; 94: 221228.##]
Mechanical Properties of CNTReinforced Polymer Nanocomposites: A Molecular Dynamics Study
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2
Understanding the mechanism underlying the behavior of polymerbased nanocomposites requires investigation at the molecular level. In the current study, an atomistic simulation based on molecular dynamics was performed to characterize the mechanical properties of polycarbonate (PC) nanocomposites reinforced with singlewalled armchair carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The stiffness matrix and elastic properties such as Young’s modulus, shear and bulk moduli, and Poisson’s ratio for the pure PC and PC/CNT nanocomposites were estimated using the constantstrain method. In this research, this method was used for the first time to investigate the effects of different parameters, such as the effects of weight fraction and aspect ratio of CNTs on the elastic properties of PC/SWCNT nanocomposites. From the computational results, the elastic moduli of PC/CNT nanocomposites increased with increasing the amount of incorporated CNTs, while their aspect ratio (l/d) also increased. A significant increase in the elastic modulus (41.2%) was observed, even with the addition of a small quantity (2.4 wt%) of SWCNTs. Upon addition of about 6.9 wt% of SWCNTs, the elastic modulus increased by almost 52%.
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113
121


M.
Farhadinia
Composite Materials and Technology Center, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Composite Materials and Technology Center,
Iran


B.
Arab
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran  Young Researchers and Elites Club, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
b.arab@iautnb.ac.ir


J.E.
Jam
Composite Materials and Technology Center, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Composite Materials and Technology Center,
Iran
Carbon Nanotubes
Polymer nanocomposites
Mechanical properties
molecular dynamics
[[1] Dar UA, Zhang W, Xu Y, Wang J. Thermal and strain rate sensitive compressive behavior of polycarbonate polymerexperimental and constitutive analysis. J Polymer Research 2014; 21(8): 110 ##[2] Mittal V. Polymer Nanotubes Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications. John Wiley and Sons, 2014 ##[3] Sharma S, Chandra R, Kumar P, Kumar N. Thermomechanical characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites: A molecular dynamics approach. Comptes Rendus Mécanique 2015; 343(5): 371396 ##[4] Eitan A, Fisher F, Andrews R, Brinson L, Schadler L. Reinforcement mechanisms in MWCNTfilled polycarbonate. Compos Sci Technol 2006; 66(9): 11621173 ##[5] Chen L, Pang XJ, Yu ZL. Study on polycarbonate/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite produced by melt processing. Mater Sci Eng, A 2007; 457(1): 287291 ##[6] Aghadavoudi F, Golestanian H, Tadi Beni Y. Investigating the Effects of Resin CrossLinking Ratio on Mechanical Properties of EpoxyBased Nanocomposites Using Molecular Dynamics. Polym Compos 2016; doi:10.1002/pc.24014 ##[7] Arash B, Wang Q, Varadan VK. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 18 ##[8] Sharma S, Chandra R, Kumar P, Kumar N. Thermomechanical characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites: A molecular dynamics approach. Comptes Rendus Mecanique 2015; 343(56): 371396 ##[9] Gates T, Odegard G, Frankland S, Clancy T. Computational materials: multiscale modeling and simulation of nanostructured materials. Compos Sci Technol 2005; 65(15): 24162434 ##[10] Odegard G, Gates T, Wise K, Park C, Siochi E. Constitutive modeling of nanotubereinforced polymer composites. Compos Sci Technol 2003; 63(11): 16711687 ##[11] Odegard GM, Gates TS, Nicholson LM, Wise KE. Equivalentcontinuum modeling of nanostructured materials. Compos Sci Technol 2002; 62(14): 18691880 ##[12] Rossi M, Meo M. On the estimation of mechanical properties of singlewalled carbon nanotubes by using a molecularmechanics based FE approach. Compos Sci Technol 2009; 69(9): 13941398 ##[13] Papanikos P, Nikolopoulos D, Tserpes K. Equivalent beams for carbon nanotubes. Comput Mater Sci 2008; 43(2): 345352 ##[14] Tserpes K, Papanikos P, Labeas G, Pantelakis SG. Multiscale modeling of tensile behavior of carbon nanotubereinforced composites. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 2008; 49(1): 5160 ##[15] Valavala PK, Odegard GM, editors. Multiscale constitutive modeling of polymer materials. ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition; 2007: American Society of Mechanical Engineers ##[16] Guglielmi M, Kickelbick G, Martucci A. SolGel Nanocomposites. Springer, 2014 ##[17] Frenkel D, Smit B. Understanding molecular simulations: from algorithms to applications. Academic Press, 1996 ##[18] AlOstaz A, Pal G, Mantena PR, Cheng A. Molecular dynamics simulation of SWCNT–polymer nanocomposite and its constituents. J Mater Sci 2008; 43(1): 164173 ##[19] Sun H. COMPASS: an ab initio forcefield optimized for condensedphase applications overview with details on alkane and benzene compounds. J Phys Chem B 1998; 102(38): 73387364 ##[20] Fried J. The COMPASS force field: parameterization and validation for phosphazenes. Comput Theor Polym Sci 1998; 8(12): 229246 ##[21] Bunte SW, Sun H. Molecular modeling of energetic materials: the parameterization and validation of nitrate esters in the COMPASS force field. J Phys Chem B 2000; 104(11): 24772489 ##[22] Yang J, Ren Y, Tian Am, Sun H. COMPASS force field for 14 inorganic molecules, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2, O2, N2, NO, CO, CO2, NO2, CS2, and SO2, in liquid phases. J Phys Chem B 2000; 104(20): 49514957 ##[23] McQuaid MJ, Sun H, Rigby D. Development and validation of COMPASS force field parameters for molecules with aliphatic azide chains. J Comput Chem 2004; 25(1): 6171 ##[24] http://accelrys.com/products/collaborativescience/bioviamaterialsstudio/ ##[25] Yang S, Choi J, Cho M. Elastic stiffness and filler size effect of covalently grafted nanosilica polyimide composites: Molecular dynamics study. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2012; 4(9): 47924799 ##[26] Ewald PP. Die Berechnung optischer und elektrostatischer Gitterpotentiale. Ann Phys 1921; 369(3): 253287 ##[27] Berendsen HJ, Postma Jv, van Gunsteren WF, DiNola A, Haak J. Molecular dynamics with coupling to an external bath. J Chem Phys 1984; 81(8): 36843690 ##[28] Nosé S. A molecular dynamics method for simulations in the canonical ensemble. Mol Phys 1984; 52(2): 255268 ##[29] Hoover WG. Canonical dynamics: equilibrium phasespace distributions. Physical Review A 1985; 31(3): 1695 ##[30] Materials Studio 6.0 (Accelrys Inc.), Classical simulations theory – mechanical properties ##[31] Shokuhfar A, Arab B. The effect of cross linking density on the mechanical properties and structure of the epoxy polymers: molecular dynamics simulation. J Molecul Modell 2013; 19(9): 37193731 ##[32] Arab B, Shokuhfar A. Molecular dynamics simulation of crosslinked ureaformaldehyde polymers for selfhealing nanocomposites: prediction of mechanical properties and glass transition temperature. J Molecul Modell 2013; 19(11): 50535062 ##[33] Takeda T, Shindo Y, Narita F, Mito Y. Tensile characterization of carbon nanotubereinforced polymer composites at cryogenic temperatures: experimens and multiscale simulations. Mater Trans 2009; 50(3): 436445 ##[34] Christopher WF, Fox DW. Polycarbonates. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1962 ##[35] Fornes T, Baur J, Sabba Y, Thomas E. Morphology and properties of meltspun polycarbonate fibers containing singleand multiwall carbon nanotubes. Polym 2006; 47(5): 17041714 ##[36] King JA, Via MD, Caspary JA, Jubinski MM, Miskioglu I, Mills OP, et al. Electrical and thermal conductivity and tensile and flexural properties of carbon nanotube/polycarbonate resins. J Appl Polym Sci 2010; 118(5): 25122520 ##[37] Man Y, Li Z, Zhang Z. Interfacedependent mechanical properties in MWNTfilled polycarbonate. Mater Trans 2009; 50(6): 13551359 ##[38] Oliver A, Bult J, Le QV, Mbaruku AL, Schwartz J. Mechanical properties of nonfunctionalized multiwall nanotube reinforced polycarbonate at 77 K. Nanotechnol 2008; 19(50): 505702 ##[39] Kim KH, Jo WH. A strategy for enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties of polycarbonate/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites. Carbon 2009; 47(4): 11261134 ##[40] Islam MZ, Mahboob M, Lowe RL. Mechanical properties of defective carbon nanotube/polyethylene nanocomposites: A molecular dynamics simulation study. Polym Compos 2014; 37(1): 305314 ##[41] Aghadavoudi F, Golestanian H, Beni YT. Investigation of CNT Defects on Mechanical Behavior of Cross linked Epoxy based Nanocomposites by Molecular Dynamics. Int J Adv Design Manuf Technol 2016; 9(1): 137146 ##]
Static and Free Vibration Analyses of Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Plates Reinforced by Wavy Carbon Nanotubes Resting on a Pasternak Elastic Foundation
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2
In this study, static and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) nanocomposite plates, reinforced by wavy singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) resting on a Pasternak elastic foundation, were investigated based on a meshfree method and modified firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT). Three linear types of FG nanocomposite plate distributions and a uniform distribution of wavy carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were considered, in addition to plate thickness. The mechanical properties were by an extended rule of mixture. In the meshfree analysis, moving least squares (MLS) shape functions were used for approximation of the displacement field in the weak form of a motion equation, and the transformation method was used for imposition of essential boundary conditions. Effects of geometric dimensions, boundary conditions, the type of applied force, and the waviness index, aspect ratio, volume fraction, and distribution pattern of CNTs were examined for their effects on the static and frequency behaviors of FG carbon nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC) plates. Waviness and the distribution pattern of CNTs had a significant effect on the mechanical behaviors of FGCNTRC plates, even more than the effect of the CNT volume fraction.
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R.
Moradi Dastjerdi
Young Researchers and Elite Club,Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club,Khomeinishahr
Iran
rasoul.moradi@iaukhsh.ac.ir


G.
Payganeh
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU), Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid
Iran
g.payganeh@srttu.edu


S.
Rajabizadeh Mirakabad
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU), Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid
Iran


M.
Jafari MofradTaheri
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU), Tehran, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid
Iran
Static
free vibration
Wavy carbon nanotube
Nanocomposite plates
MeshFree
[[1] Iijima S, Ichihashi T. Singleshell carbon nanotubes of 1nm diameter. Nature, 1993; 363: 6035. ##[2] Thostenson ET, Ren Z, Chou TW. Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review. Compos Sci Technol, 2001; 61: 1899–912. ##[3] Fiedler B, Gojny FH, Wichmann MHG, Nolte MCM, Schulte K. Fundamental aspects of nanoreinforced composites. Compos Sci Technol, 2006; 66: 3115–25. ##[4] Thai HT, Choi DH. A refined plate theory for functionally graded plates resting on elastic foundation. Compos Sci Technol, 2011; 71: 1850–1858. ##[5] Meguid SA, Sun Y. On the tensile and shear strength of nanoreinforced composite interfaces. Mater Des, 2004; 25: 289–96. ##[6] Shen HS. Nonlinear bending of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates in thermal environments. Compos Struct, 2009; 91: 919. ##[7] Shen HS. Postbuckling of nanotubereinforced composite cylindrical shells in thermal environments, Part I: Axiallyloaded shells. Compos Struct, 2011; 93: 2096108. ##[8] Zhu P, Lei ZX, Liew KM. Static and free vibration analyses of carbon nanotubereinforced composite plates using finite element method with first order shear deformation plate theory, Compos Struct, 2012; 94: 1450–1460. ##[9] Alibeigloo A. Static analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plate embedded in piezoelectric layers by using theory of elasticity. Compos Struct, 2013; 95: 612–22. ##[10] Malekzadeh P, Zarei AR. Free vibration of quadrilateral laminated plates with carbon nanotube reinforced composite layers, ThinWalled Struct, 2014; 82: 221–232. ##[11] Alibeigloo A, Liew KM. Thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plate using theory of elasticity. Compos Struct, 2013; 106: 873–881. ##[12] MoradiDastjerdi R, Payganeh G, MalekMohammadi H. Free Vibration Analyses of Functionally Graded CNT Reinforced Nanocomposite Sandwich Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation. J Solid Mech, 2015; 7: 158172. ##[13] MoradiDastjerdi R, Foroutan M, Pourasghar A. Dynamic analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite cylinders reinforced by carbon nanotube by a meshfree method. Mater Des, 2013; 44: 256–66. ##[14] MoradiDastjerdi R, Foroutan M, Pourasghar A, SotoudehBahreini R. Static analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite cylinders by a meshfree method. J Reinf Plast Comp, 2013; 32: 593601. ##[15] MoradiDastjerdi R, Pourasghar A, Foroutan M. The effects of carbon nanotube orientation and aggregation on vibrational behavior of functionally graded nanocomposite cylinders by a meshfree method. Acta Mech, 2013; 224: 28172832. ##[16] Lei ZX, Liew KM, Yu JL. Free vibration analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plates using the elementfree kpRitz method in thermal environment. Compos Struct, 2013; 106: 128–138. ##[17] Zhang LW, Lei ZX, Liew KM. An elementfree IMLSRitz framework for buckling analysis of FG–CNT reinforced composite thick plates resting on Winkler foundations. Eng Anal Bound Elem, 2015; 58: 7–17. ##[18] Zhang LW, Song ZG, Liew KM. Nonlinear bending analysis of FGCNT reinforced composite thick plates resting on Pasternak foundations using the elementfree IMLSRitz method. Compos Struct, 2015; 128: 165–175. ##[19] Martone FG, Antonucci V, Giordano M, et al. The effect of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes on their effective reinforcement modulus in an epoxy matrix. Compos Sci Technol, 2011; 71: 1117–1123. ##[20] Jam JE, Pourasghar A, Kamarian S. The effect of the aspect ratio and waviness of CNTs on the vibrational behavior of functionally graded nanocomposite cylindrical panels. Polymer Compos, 2012; 33: 203644. ##[21] MoradiDastjerdi R, Pourasghar A, Foroutan M, Bidram M. Vibration analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite cylinders reinforced by wavy carbon nanotube based on meshfree method. J Compos Mater, 2014; 48: 190113. ##[22] MoradiDastjerdi R, Pourasghar A. Dynamic analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite cylinders reinforced by wavy carbon nanotube under an impact load. J Vib Control, 2016: 22, 10621075. ##[23] Shams S, Soltani B. The Effects of Carbon Nanotube Waviness and Aspect Ratio on the Buckling Behavior of Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Plates Using a Meshfree Method. Polymer Compos, 2015; DOI 10.1002/pc.23814. ##[24] Efraim E and Eisenberger M. Exact vibration analysis of variable thickness thick annular isotropic and FGM plates. J Sound Vib, 2007; 299: 720–38. ##[25] Lancaster P, Salkauskas K. Surface Generated by Moving Least Squares Methods. Math Comput, 1981; 37: 14158. ##[26] Song YS, Youn JR. Modeling of effective elastic properties for polymer based carbon nanotube composites. Polym, 2006; 47: 1741–8. ##[27] Ferreira AJM, Castro LMS, Bertoluzza S. A high order collocation method for the static and vibration analysis of composite plates using a firstorder theory. Compos Struct, 2009; 89: 424–432. ##[28] Akhras G, Cheung MS, Li W. Finite strip analysis for anisotropic laminated composite plates using higherorder deformation theory. Compos Struct, 1994; 52: 471–7. ##[29] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Martins PALS. Analysis of composite plates using higherorder shear deformation theory and a finite point formulation based on the multiquadric radial basis function method. Compos Part B, 2003; 34: 627–36. ##[30] Reddy JN. Introduction to the finite element method. New York: McGrawHill; 1993. ##[31] Baferani AH, Saidi AR, Ehteshami H. Accurate solution for free vibration analysis of functionally graded thick rectangular plates resting on elastic foundation. Compos Struct, 2011; 93: 1842–53.##]
Modeling of Hygrothermal Damage of Composite Materials
2
2
Composite materials have been used extensively in various applications, such as mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, and aviation thanks to their interesting mechanical properties. However, a substantial drawback in the use of such composite materials is that they absorb a significant amount of moisture when exposed to severe hygrothermal conditions. This factor dramatically affects the composite material’s various physical and mechanical properties. This paper proposed a new model to predict the amount of moisture absorbed by a composite polyester/glass fiber composite material before and after hygrothermal damage. Two damage models were proposed and implemented in ABAQUS. A numerical simulation was used to estimate hygrothermal stresses in a composite plate. The results showed that the moisture absorption followed a Fickian behavior; if the temperature was low, the plate would be damaged, but the moisture diffusion rate accelerated when the hygrothermal parameters (temperature and humidity) were high. Additionally, the magnitude of residual stress, which was at its maximum at the beginning of the absorption, started to decrease until reaching zero when the plate was saturated.
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137
144


R.B.A.
Ouled Ahmed
Laboratoire de Mécanique de Sousse (LR 11 ES 36) National Engineering School of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia
Laboratoire de Mécanique de Sousse
Other Countries
ouledahmed_raja@live.fr


S.
Chatti
Laboratoire de Mécanique de Sousse (LR 11 ES 36) National Engineering School of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia
Laboratoire de Mécanique de Sousse
Other Countries


H.
Ben Daly
Laboratoire de Mécanique de Sousse (LR 11 ES 36) National Engineering School of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia
Laboratoire de Mécanique de Sousse
Other Countries
Composite
Fick’s law
Hygrothermal stress
Damage law
[[1] Faguaga E, Pérez CJ, Villarreal N, Rodriguez ES, Alvarez V. Effect of water absorption on the dynamic mechanical properties of composites used for windmill blades. Mater Des 2012; 36: 609–616. ##[2] Boukhoulda BF, AddaBedia E, Madani K. The eﬀect of ﬁber orientation angle in composite materials on moisture absorption and material degradation after hygrothermal ageing. Compos Struct 2006; 74: 406–418. ##[3] Kasturiarachchi KA, Pritchard G. Water absorption of glass/epoxy laminates under bending stresses. Compos 1983; 14, 244–250. ##[4] Tsai YI, Bosze EJ, Barjasteh E, Nutt SR. Inﬂuence of hygrothermal environment on thermal and mechanical properties of carbon ﬁber/ﬁberglass hybrid composites. Compos Sci Technol 2009; 69: 432–437. ##[5] Perreux D, Suri C. A study of the coupling between the phenomena of water absorption and damage in glass/epoxy composite pipes. Compos Sci Technol 1997; 57: 14031413. ##[6] Jiang Xu, Henk Kolstein, Frans SK. Bijlaard. Moisture diffusion in glass–ﬁberreinforced polymer composite bridge under hot/wet environment. Compos Part B 2013; 45: 407–416. ##[7] Weitsman YJ, Guo YaJun. A correlation between ﬂuidinduced damage and anomalous ﬂuid sorption in polymeric composites. Compos Sci Technol 2002; 62: 889–908. ##[8] Sih GC. Transient Hygrothermal Stresses in Plates with and Without Cavities. Fibre Sci Technol 1983; 18: 181–201. ##[9] Benkeddad A, GrCdiac M, Vautrin A.Computation of transient hygroscopic stresses in laminated composite plates. Compos Sci Technol 1996; 56: 869–876. ##[10] Tsenoglou CJ, Pavlidou S, Papaspyrides CD. Evaluation of interfacial relaxation due to water absorption in fiber–polymer composites. Compos Sci Technol 2006; 66: 2855–64. ##[11] Mandell JF, Samborsky DD, Li M, Orozco R, Cairns DS. Selection of fiberglass matrix resins for increased toughness and environmental resistance in wind turbine blades. ASME Wind Energy Symp, Reno (Nevada), United States, (2000). ##[12] Fraga AN, Alvarez VA, Vazquez A, De la Osa O. Relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and water absorption of unsaturated polyester and vinyl ester glass fiber composites. Compos Mater 2003; 37: 1553–74. ##[13] Mouzakis DE, Zog H, Galiotis C. Accelerated environmental ageing study of polyester/glass fiber reinforced composites (GFRPCs). Compos Part B: Eng 2008; 39: 467–75. ##[14] Gu H. Behaviours of glass fibre/unsaturated polyester composites under seawater environment. Mater Des 2009; 30: 1337–40. ##[15] Errajhi OAZ, Osborne JRF, Richardson MOW, Dhakal HN. Water absorption characteristics of aluminized Eglass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Compos Struct 2005; 71: 333–6. ##[16] Weitsman YJ, Guo YH. A correlation between fluidinduced damage and anomalous fluid sorption in polymeric composites Compos Sci Technol 2002; 62: 889–908. ##[17] Akil HM, Cheng WL, Affzan MH, Bakar AA, Mohd Ishak ZA. Water absorption study on pultruded eglass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Adv Compos Lett 2010; 19: 101–3. ##[18] Bank LC, Gentry TR, Barkatt A. Accelerated test methods to determine the longterm behavior of frp composite structures  environmentaleffects. J Reinforced Plastics Compos 1995; 14(6): 559–87. ##[19] Earl JS, Shenoi RA. Hygrothermal ageing effects on FRP laminate and structural foam materials. Compos Part A: Appl Sci Manufact 2004; 35(11): 1237–47. ##[20] Koniorczyk M, Koniorczyk D, Schrefler BA. Modeling evolution of frost damage in fully saturated porous materials exposed to variable hygrothermal conditions, Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2015; 297: 38–61. ##[21] Brischetto S, Hygrothermal loading effects in bending analysis of multilayered composite plates. Comput Modell Eng Sci 2012; 88: 367–418. ##[22] Haque A, Mahmood S, Walker L, Jeelani S. Moisture and temperature induced degradation in tensile properties of Kevlar graphite epoxy hybrid composites. J Reinforced Plastics Compos 1991; 10(2):132–45. ##[23] Akay M, Mun SKA, Stanley A. Influence of moisture on the thermal and mechanical properties of autoclaved and ovencured Kevlar49/epoxy laminates. Compos Sci Technol 1997; 57(5): 565–71. ##[24] Ben Daly H, Harchay M, Belhadjsalah H, Boukhili R. Experimental characterization and numerical simulation of the humidity absorption process in glass reinforced composites under dissymmetric exposure conditions. Polym Compos 2009; 30: 1825–1836. ##[25] Derrien K, Gilormini P. The effect of moistureinduced swelling on the absorption capacity of transversely isotropic elastic polymer–matrix composites. Int J Solids Struct 2009; 46: 1547–1553. ##]