2016
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71
Accelerated Heat Aging Study of Phenolic/Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composites
2
2
One of the greatest impediments to use polymermatrix composites is their susceptibility to degradation when exposed to the elevated temperatures and the limited knowledge on the thermal and mechanical properties of these composites at such temperatures. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of accelerated heat aging on the tensile properties of the Woven Basalt/Phenolic (WBP) composites. Mechanical tests are performed on the specimens, which have previously been subjected to the accelerated heat aging conditions. The specimens were exposed to the constant temperatures in the range of 150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C for various periods of times, and then, the residual tensile properties were measured at room temperature. The specimens were isothermally heated for 1, 2, 5, and 10 hours at the said temperatures and then left to cool naturally to the ambient temperature of about 25 °C. Both the tensile modulus and the ultimate tensile strength of WBP composites decreased with elevated temperatures and these degradations were time and temperature dependent.
1

1
7


M.
Najafi
University of Guilan
University of Guilan
Iran
moslem.najafi85@yahoo.com


S.M.R.
Khalili
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
Iran
khalili@kntu.ac.ir


R.
EslamiFarsani
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
Iran
eslami@kntu.ac.ir
Polymermatrix composites
Accelerated heat aging
Basalt fiber
Phenolic resin
Tensile properties
[[1] Regnier N, Guibe C. Methodology for multistage degradation of polyimide polymer. Polym Degrad Stab, 1997; 55: 165–172. ##[2] Tsotis TK, Keller K, Lee K, Bardis J, Bish J. Aging of polymeric composite specimens for 5000 hours at elevated pressure and temperature. Comp Sci Tech, 2001; 61(1): 75–86. ##[3] Bowles KJ, Meyers A. Specimen geometry effects on graphite/PMR 15 composites during thermooxidative ageing. Int SAMPE Symp, 1986; 1285–1299. ##[4] Nam JD, Seferis JC. Anisotropic thermooxidative stability of carbon fiber reinforced polymeric composites. Int SAMPE Symp, 1992; 24(1): 10–18. ##[5] Salin IM, Seferis JC. Anisotropic effects in thermogravimetry of polymeric composites. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys, 1993; 31: 1019–1027. ##[6] Bowles KJ, Madhukar MS, Papadopoulos DS, Inghram L, McCorkle L. The effects of fiber surface modification and thermal aging on composite toughness and its measurement. J Comp Mater, 1997; 31(6): 552–579. ##[7] Mouritz AP, Mathys Z. Mechanical Properties of Firedamaged Glassreinforced Phenolic Composites. Fire Mater, 2000; 34: 67–75. ##[8] Mouritz AP, Mathys Z. Postfire Mechanical Properties of Marine Polymer Composites. Compos Struct, 1999; 47: 643–653. ##[9] Mouritz AP, Mathys Z. Postfire Mechanical Properties of Glassreinforced Polyester Composites. Compos Sci Technol, 2001; 61: 475–490. ##[10] Gardiner CP, Mouritz AP, Mathys Z, Towsend CR. Tensile and Compressive Properties of GRP Composites with Local Heat Damage. Appl Compos Mater, 2002; 9(6): 353–367. ##[11] Gates T, Grayson M. On the use of accelerated aging methods for screening high temperature polymeric composite materials. Am Inst Aeronaut Astronaut, 1998; 2: 925–935. ##[12] Sakai W, Sadakane T, Nishimoto W, Nagata M, Tsutsumi N. Photosensitized degradation and crosslinking of linear aliphatic polyesters by GPC and ESR. Polymer, 2002; 43: 6231–6238. ##[13] Li G, Pourmohamadian N, Cygan A, Peck J. Fast repair of laminated beams using UV curing composites. Compos Struct, 2003; 60: 73–81. ##[14] Grossman E, Gouzman I. Space environment effects on polymers in low earth orbit. Nucl Instrum Methods, 2003; 208: 48–57. ##[15] Tsotsis TK, Lee SM. Longterm Thermooxidative aging in composite materials: Failure mechanisms. Compos Sci Technol, 1998; 58: 355–368. ##[16] Feih S, Mathys Z, Gibson AG, Mouritz AP. Tensile strength modeling of glass fiber  polymer composites in fire. J Compos Mater, 2007; 41: 2387–2410 ##[17] Feih S, Mathys Z, Gibson AG, Mouritz AP. Strength degradation of glass fibers at high temperatures. J Mater Sci, 2009; 44(2): 392–400 ##[18] Adams DS, Bowles DE, Herakovich CT. Thermally induced transverse cracking in graphite/epoxy crossply laminates. J Reinf Plast Compos, 1986; 5(3): 152–69. ##[19] Chung K, Yoshioka K, seferis JC. Hygrothermal cycling effect on the durability of phenolic base composites. Polym Composite, 2002; 23(2): 141–152. ##[20] We Bi, Cao H, Song S. Environmental resistance and mechanical performance of basalt and glass fibres. Mater Sci Eng A Struct, 2010, 527: 4708–4715. ##[21] We Bi, Cao H, Song S. Tensile behavior contrast of basalt and glass fibres after chemical treatment. Mater Des, 2010; 31: 4244–4250. ##[22] Berozashvili M. Continuous reinforcing fibres are being offered for construction, civil engineering and other composites applications. Adv Mater Com News, Compos Worldwide, 2001; 6: 5–6. ##[23] Kadykova Yu, Artemenko SE, Vasil'eva OV, Leont'ev AN. Physicochemical Reaction in Polymer Composite Materials Made from Carbon, Glass, and Basalt Fibers. Fibre Chem, 2003; 35(6): 455–457. ##[24] Wei B, Cao HL, Song SH. Degradation of basalt fibre and glass fibre/epoxy resin composites in seawater. Corros Sci, 2011; 53(1): 426–431. ##[25] Wang X, Wu Z, Wu G, Zhu H, Zen F. Enhancement of basalt FRP by hybridization for longspan cablestayed bridge. Compos Part B Eng, 2013; 44(1): 184–192. ##[26] Lopresto V, Leone C, De Iorio I. Mechanical characterisation of basalt fibre reinforced plastic. Compos Part B Eng, 2011; 42(4): 717–723. ##[27] Dorigato A, Pegoretti A. Fatigue resistance of basalt fibersreinforced laminates. J Compos Mater, 2012; 46: 1773–1785. ##[28] De Rosa IM, Marra F, Pulci G, Santulli C, Sarasini F, Tirillò J, et al. Postimpact mechanical characterization of glass and basalt woven fabric laminates. Appl Compos Mater, 2012; 19: 475–490. ##[29] EslamiFarsani R, Khalili SMR, Najafi M. Effect of Thermal Cycling on Hardness and Impact Properties of Polymer Composites Reinforced by Basalt and Carbon Fibers. J Therm Stresses, 2013; 36: 684–698. ##[30] Najafi M, Khalili SMR, EslamiFarsani R, Hybridization effect of basalt and carbon fibers on impact and flexural properties of phenolic composites. Iran Polym J, 2014; 23: 767–773. ##[31] http://www.basaltex.com. ##[32] http://www.huntsman.com. ##[33] Wang X, Wu Z, Wu G, Zhu H, Zen F. Enhancement of basalt FRP by hybridization for longspan cablestayed bridge. Compos Part B Eng, 2013; 44(1): 184–192. ##[34] Militky J, Cerny M, Jakes P. Composite materials with basalt fiber reinforcement and pyrolysed polysiloxane matrix. Acta Research Reports, 2008; 17: 31–36. ##[35] LafarieFrenota MC, Rouquiea S, Hoa NQ, Bellengerb V. Comparison of damage development in C/epoxy laminates during isothermal ageing or thermal cycling. Composites Part A, 2006; 37: 662–671. ##[36] Decelle J, Huet N, Bellenger V. Oxidation induced shrinkage for thermally aged epoxy networks, Polym Degrad Stab, 2003; 81: 239–248.##]
Effect of Curvature on the Mechanical Properties of Graphene: A Density Functional Tightbinding Approach
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2
Due to the high cost of experimental analyses, researchers used atomistic modeling methods for predicting the mechanical behavior of the materials in the fields of nanotechnology. In the present study the SelfConsistent Charge Density Functional TightBinding (SCCDFTB) was used to calculate Young's moduli and average potential energy of the straight and curved graphenes with different curvature widths under axial strain. Also, this method was used to determine the magnitude of the curvature on the aforementioned mechanical properties. From the results it can be concluded that Young's moduli of straight graphene is equal to 1.3 TPa and this mechanical property decreases slowly by decreasing the curvature width of graphenes. Also, the average potential energy and Young's modulus of graphenes decrease with increasing the number of curvature. In next section the Young's moduli of oneatom vacancy and twoatom vacancy defect were calculated and it was found that this mechanical property decreased with increasing the number of atom vacancy in the curved graphene.
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9
13


Morteza
GhorbanzadehAhangari
University of Mazandaran
University of Mazandaran
Iran
m.ghorbanzadeh@umz.ac.ir
Curved graphene
Density functional tightbinding
Defect
Young's Modulus
[[1] Rajasekaran G, Narayanan P, Parashar A Effect of Point and Line Defects on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Graphene: A Review. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 2016; 41: 4771. ##[2] Parvez K, Wu ZS, Li R, Liu X, Graf R, Feng X, Müllen K Exfoliation of graphite into graphene in aqueous solutions of inorganic salts. J Am Chem Soc 2014; 136: 60836091. ##[3] Georgantzinos SK, Giannopoulos GI, Anifantis NK Numerical investigation of elastic mechanical properties of graphene structures. Mater Des 2010; 31: 46464654. ##[4] Zhao X, Zhang Q, Chen D, Lu P enhanced mechanical properties of graphenebased poly (vinyl alcohol) composites. Macromolecules 2010; 43: 23572363. ##[5] Stankovich S, Dmitriy AD, Geoffrey HBD, Kevin MK, Eric JZ, Eric AS, Richard DP, SonBinh TN, Rodney SR graphenebased composite materials. Nature 2006; 442: 282286. ##[6] Li D, Kaner RB graphenebased materials. Nat Nanotechnol 2008; 3: 101. ##[7] Novoselov KSA, Andre KG, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Sci 2004; 306: 666669. ##[8] Novoselov KSA, Andre KG, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Katsnelson MI, Grigorieva IV, Dubonos SV, Firsov AA twodimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene. Nature 2005; 438: 197200. ##[9] Novoselov KS, Jiang Z, Zhang Y, Morozov SV, Stormer HL, Zeitler U, Maan JC, Boebinger GS, Kim P, Geim AK roomtemperature quantum Hall effect in graphene. Sci 2007; 315: 1379. ##[10] Meo M, Rossi M prediction of Young’s modulus of single wall carbon nanotubes by molecularmechanics based finite element modelling. Compos Sci Technol 2006; 66: 1597605. ##[11] GomezNavarro C, Burghard M, Kern K elastic properties of chemically derived single graphene sheets. Nano Lett 2008; 8: 20452049. ##[12] Lee C, Wei XD, Kysar JW, Hone J measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Sci 2008; 321: 385388. ##[13] Balandin AA, Ghosh S, Bao W, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Miao F, Lau CN superior thermal conductivity of singlelayer graphene. Nano Lett 2008; 8: 902907. ##[14] Van Lier G, Van Alsenoy C, Van Doren V, Geerlings P ab initio study of the elastic properties of singlewalled carbon nanotubes and graphene. Chem Phys Lett 2000; 326: 181185. ##[15] Chen W, Rakhi RB, Alshareef HN Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curvedgraphene supercapacitors in a redoxactive electrolyte. Nanoscale 2013; 5: 41344138. ##[16] Zhou X, Wan LJ, Guo YG Binding SnO2 Nanocrystals in Nitrogen‐Doped Graphene Sheets as Anode Materials for Lithium‐Ion Batteries. Adv Mater 2013; 25: 21522157. ##[17] Kulkarni GS, Reddy K, Zhong Z, Fan X Graphene nanoelectronic heterodyne sensor for rapid and sensitive vapour detection. Nature Commun 2014; 5: 4376. ##[18] Gilje S, Han S, Wang M, Wang KL, Kaner RB a chemical route to graphene for device applications. Nano Lett 2007; 7: 33943398. ##[19] Wang X, Zhi L, Müllen K transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dyesensitized solar cells. Nano Lett 2008; 8: 323327. ##[20] Watcharotone S, et al. graphenesilica composite thin films as transparent conductors. Nano Lett 2007; 7: 18881892. ##[21] Yu A, Ramesh P, Itkis ME, Bekyarova E, Haddon RC graphite nanoplateletepoxy composite thermal interface materials. J Phys Chem C 2007; 111: 75657569. ##[22] Lu Q, Arroyo M, Huang R elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene. J Phys D Appl Phys 2009; 42: 102002. ##[23] Gao Y, Hao P mechanical properties of monolayer graphene under tensile and compressive loading. Physica E 2009; 41: 15611566. ##[24] Xiao J, Staniszewski J, Gillespie J tensile behaviors of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes with multiple StoneWales defects. Mater Sci Eng A 2010; 527: 715723. ##[25] Ertekin E, Daw M, Chrzan D elasticity theory of topological defects in carbon nanotubes and graphene. Philos Mag Lett 2008; 88: 159167. ##[26] Behfar K, Seifi P, Naghdabadi R, Ghanbari J an analytical approach to determination of bending modulus of a multilayered graphene sheet. Thin Solid Films 2006; 496: 475480. ##[27] Shokrieh MM, Rafiee R prediction of Young's modulus of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes using nanoscale continuum mechanics approach. Mater Des 2010; 31: 790795. ##[28] Shokrieh MM, Rafiee R a review of the mechanical properties of isolated carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube composites. Mech Compos Mater 2010; 46: 155172. ##[29] Omata Y, Yamagami Y, Tadano K, Miyake T, Saito S nanotube nanoscience: A moleculardynamics study. Physica E 2005; 29: 454468. ##[30] Utkov H, Livengood M, Cafiero M using Density Functional Theory Methods for Modeling Induction and Dispersion Interactions in LigandProtein Complexes. Annu Rep Comput Chem 2010; 6: 96112. ##[31] Cai J, Wang Y, Wang C effect of ending surface on energy and Young's modulus of singlewalled carbon nanotubes studied using linear scaling quantum mechanical method. Physica B 2009; 404: 39303034. ##[32] Ganji MD, Fereidoon A, Jahanshahi M, Ahangari MG elastic properties of SWCNTs with curved morphology: Density functional tight binding based treatment. Solid State Commun 2012; 152: 15261530. ##[33] Jing N, Xue Q, Ling C, Shan M, Zhang T, Zhou X, Jiao Z Effect of defects on Young's modulus of graphene sheets: a molecular dynamics simulation. Rsc Adv 2012; 2: 91249129. ##[34] Memarian F, Fereidoon A, Ganji MD Graphene Young’s modulus: Molecular mechanics and DFT treatments. Superlattices Microst 2015; 85: 348356.##]
Dynamic Stiffness Method for Free Vibration of Moderately Thick Functionally Graded Plates
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2
In this study, a dynamic stiffness method for free vibration analysis of moderately thick functionally graded material plates is developed. The elasticity modulus and mass density of the plate are assumed to vary according to a powerlaw distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents whereas Poisson’s ratio is constant. Due to the variation of the elastic properties through the thickness, the equations of motion governing the inplane and transverse deformations are initially coupled. Using a new reference plane instead of the midplane of the plate, the uncoupled differential equations of motions are derived. The outofplane equations of motion are solved by introducing the auxiliary and potential functions and using the separation of variables method. Using the method, the exact natural frequencies of the Functionally Graded Plates (FGPs) are obtained for different boundary conditions. The accuracy of the natural frequencies obtained from the present dynamic stiffness method is evaluated by comparing them with those obtained from the methods suggested by other researchers.
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MohammadReza
Soltani
Yasouj University
Yasouj University
Iran
m88_soltani@yahoo.com


Shahabeddin
Hatami
Yasouj University
Yasouj University
Iran
hatami@yu.ac.ir


Mojtaba
Azhari
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
mojtaba@cc.iut.ac.ir


HamidReza
Ronagh
Western Sydney University
Western Sydney University
Other Countries
hamidronagh@gmail.com
Dynamic stiffness method
Free Vibration
Functionally graded material
Firstorder shear deformation theory
Exact solution
[[1] Mizuguchi F, Ohnabe H. Large deflections of heated functionally graded clamped rectangular plates with varying rigidity in thickness direction. 4th Int Symp Funct Graded Mater, AIST Tsukuba Research Center, Tsukuba, Japan, 1996; 8186. ##[2] Praveen GN. Reddy JN. Nonlinear transient thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded ceramicmetal plates. Int J Solids Struct 1998; 35(33): 44574476. ##[3] Yang J. Shen HS. Dynamic response of initially stressed functionally graded rectangular thin plates. Compos Struct 2001; 54(4): 497508. ##[4] Yang J. Shen HS. Vibration characteristics and transient response of shear deformable functionally graded plates in thermal environments. J Sound Vib 2002; 255(3): 579602 ##[5] Ma LS. Wang TJ. Relationships between axisymmetric bending and buckling solutions of FGM circular plates based on thirdorder plate theory and classical plate theory. Int J Solids Struct 2004; 41(1): 85101. ##[6] Kitipornchai S. Yang J. Liew KM. Semianalytical solution for nonlinear vibration of laminated FGM plates with geometric imperfections. Int J Solids Struct 2004; 41(910): 22352357. ##[7] Najafizadeh MM. Heydari HR. Thermal buckling of functionally graded circular plates based on higher order shear deformation plate theory. Eur J Mech  A/Solids 2004; 23(6): 10851100. ##[8] Bian ZG. Chen WQ. Lim CW. Zhang N. Analytical solutions for single and multispan functionally graded plates in cylindrical bending. Int J Solids Struct 2005; 42(2425): 64336456. ##[9] Chen, WQ. Bian ZG. Ding HJ. Threedimensional vibration analysis of fluidfilled orthotropic FGM cylindrical shells. Int J Mech Sci 2004; 46(1): 159171. ##[10] Wu L. Liu J. Free vibration analysis of arbitrary shaped thick plates by differential cubature method. Int J Mech Sci 2005; 47(1): 6381. ##[11] Abrate S. Free vibration, buckling and static deflections of functionally graded plates. Compos Sci Technol 2006; 66(14): 2383–2394. ##[12] HosseiniHashemi Sh. Fadaee M. Atashipour SR. A New Exact Analytical Approach for Free Vibration of Reissner–Mindlin Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates. Int J Mech Sci 2010; 53(1): 1122. ##[13] HosseiniHashemi Sh. Rokni Damavandi Tahar H. Akhavan H. Omidi M. Free vibration of functionally Graded rectangular plates using firstorder shear deformation plate theory. Appl Math Modell 2010; 34(5): 127691. ##[14] Prakash T. Ganapathi M. Asymmetric flexural vibration and thermoelastic stability of FGM circular plates using finite element method. Compos Part B: Eng 2006; 37(78): 642649. ##[15] Shariyat M. Vibration and dynamic buckling control of imperfect hybrid FGM plates with temperaturedependent material properties subjected to thermoelectromechanical loading conditions. Compos Struct 2009; 88(2): 240252. ##[16] Afsar AM. Go J. Finite element analysis of thermoelastic field in a rotating FGM circular disk. Appl Math Modell 2010; 34(11): 33093320. ##[17] Prakash T. Singha MK. Ganapathi M. A finite element study on the large amplitude flexural vibration characteristics of FGM plates under aerodynamic load. Int J NonLinear Mech 2012; 47(5): 439447. ##[18] Leung AYT. Fung TC. Nonlinear vibration of frames by the incremental dynamic stiffness method. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1990; 29(2): 337356. ##[19] Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness formulation for structural elements: A general approach. Comput Struct 1995; 63(1): 101103. ##[20] Bercin AN. Analysis of orthotropic plate structures by the direct dynamic stiffness method. Mech Res Commun 1995; 22(5): 461466. ##[21] Bercin AN. Langley RS. Application of the dynamic stiffness technique to the inplane vibrations of plate structures. Comput Struct 1996; 59(5): 869875. ##[22] Bercin AN. Analysis of energy flow in thick plate structures. Comput Struct 1997; 62(4): 747756. ##[23] Bercin AN. Eigenfrequencies of rectangular plate assemblies. Comput Struct 1997; 65(5): 703711. ##[24] Birgersson F. Ferguson NS. Finnveden S. Application of the spectral finite element method to turbulent boundray layer induced vibration of plates. J Sound Vib 2003; 259(4): 873891. ##[25] Hatami S. Azhari M. Dynamic stiffness analysis of orthotropic plates moving on some rollers and an elastic foundation, 7th Int Congr Civil Eng. Tarbiat Modarres University, 2006; 2022,: ##[26] Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness elements and their applications for plates using first order shear deformation theory. Comput Struct 2011; 89(34): 395410. ##[27] Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness formulation for composite Mindlin plates for exact modal analysis of structures. Part I: Theory. Comput Struct 2012; 9697: 6173. ##[28] Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness method for exact inplane free vibration analysis of plates and plate assemblies. J Sound Vib 2011; 330(12): 292836. ##[29] Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness formulation for composite Mindlin plates for exact modal analysis of structures. Part II: Results and applications. Comput Struct 2012; 9697: 7483. ##[30] Fazzolari FA. Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. An exact dynamic stiffness element using a higher order shear deformation theory for free vibration analysis of composite plate assemblies. Compos Struct 2013; 96: 262278. ##[31] Wittrick WH. Williams FW. A general algorithm for computing natural frequncies of elastic structures. J Mech Appl Math 1971; 24(3): 263284. ##[32] NefovskaDanilovic M. Petronijevic M. Inplane free vibration and response analysis of isotropic rectangular plates using the dynamic stiffness method. Comput Struct 2015; 152: 8295. ##[33] Liu X. Banerjee JR. Free vibration analysis for plates with arbitrary boundary conditions using a novel spectraldynamic stiffness method. Comput Struct 2016; 164: 108126 ##[34] Reddy JN. Theory and analysis of elastic plates and shells, New York: CRC Taylor & Francis Group; 2007. ##[35] Abrate S. Functionally graded plates behave like homogeneous plates. Compos Part B: Eng 2008; 39(1): 151158. ##[36] Mindlin RD. Influence of rotary inertia and shear on flexural motions of isotropic, elastic plates. J Appl Mech 1951; 18: 3138. ##[37] Zhao X. Lee Y. LiewK. Free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates using the elementfree kpRitz method. J Sound Vib 2009; 91839. ##[38] Matsunaga H. Free vibration and stability of functionally graded plates according to a 2D higherorder deformation theory. Compos Struct 2008; 319(35): 499512.##]
Precision Closedform Solution for Outofplane Vibration of Rectangular Plates via Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory
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2
In this study, the new refine trigonometric shear deformation plate theory is used to study the outofplane vibration of the rectangular isotropic plates with different boundary conditions. The novelty of the research is that the analytical precision closedform solution is developed without any use of approximation for a combination of six different boundary conditions; specifically, two opposite edges are simply supported hard and any of the other two edges can be simply supported hard, clamped or free. The equations of motion and natural boundary conditions, using Hamilton’s principle are derived. The present analytical precision closedform solution can be obtained with any required accuracy and can be used as benchmark. Based on a comparison with the previously published results, the accuracy of the results is shown. Finally, the effect of boundary conditions, variations of aspect ratios and thickness ratios on natural frequency parameters is shown and the relation between natural frequencies for different plates is examined and discussed in detail.
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31
43


Korosh
Khorshidi
Arak University
Arak University
Iran
kkhorshidi@araku.ac.ir


Mohammad
Khodadadi
Arak University
Arak University
Iran
mkhodadadii@arshad.araku.ac.ir
vibration
Precision closedform solution
Trigonometric shear deformation theory
[[1] Leissa AW, Recent Studies in Plate Vibration 19821985, PartI Classical Theory, Shock Vib Digest, 1987; 19(3): 11–18. ##[2] Reissner E, On the theory of bending of elastic plates. J Math Phys, 1944; 23(3): 184–191. ##[3] Reissner E, The effect of transverse shear deformation on the bending of elastic plates. ASME J Appl Mech, 1945; 12(5): 69–77. ##[4] Mindlin RD, Influence of rotatory inertia and shear on flexural motions of isotropic, elastic plates. ASME J Appl Mech, 1951; 18(5): 31–38. ##[5] Kim J, Cho M, Enhanced firstorder shear deformation theory for laminated and sandwich plates. J Appl Mech, 2005; 72(6): 809–817. ##[6] Reddy JN, Theory and analysis of elastic plates and shells. CRC Press, 2007. ##[7] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Jorge RMN, Electrochemical Analysis of composite plates by trigonometric shear deformation theory and multi quadrics. Comput Struct, 2005; 83(1): 2225–2237. ##[8] Xiang S, Wang KM, Free vibration analysis of symmetric laminated composite plates by trigonometric shear deformation theory and inverse multi quadric RBF. ThinWalled Struct, 2009; 47(6): 304–310. ##[9] Mantari JL, Oktem AS, Guedes Soares C, A new trigonometric shear deformation theory for isotropic, laminated composite and sandwich plates. Int J Solids Struct, 2012; 49(4): 43–53. ##[10] Mantari JL, Oktem AS, Guedes Soares C, A new trigonometric layerwise shear deformation theory for the finite element analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates. Comput Struct, 2012; 94(7): 45–53. ##[11] Tounsi A, Houari MSA, Benyoucef S, Bedia EAA, A refined trigonometric shear deformation theory for thermoelastic bending of functionally graded sandwich plates. Aero Sci Technol, 2013; 24(6): 209–220. ##[12] Tornabene F, Viola E, Fantuzzi N, General higherorder equivalent single layer theory for free vibrations of doublycurved laminated composite shells and panels. Compos Struct, 2013; 104(31): 94–117. ##[13] Rango RF, Nallim LG, Oller S, Formulation of enriched macro elements using trigonometric shear deformation theory for free vibration analysis of symmetric laminated composite plate assemblies. Compos Struct, 2015; 119(2): 38–49. ##[14] Sahoo R, Singh BN, A new trigonometric zigzag theory for static analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates. Aero Sci Technol, 2014; 35(5): 15–28. ##[15] Vel SS, Batra RC, Threedimensional exact solution for the vibration of functionally graded rectangular plates. J Sound Vib, 2004; 272: 703–730. ##[16] HosseiniHashemi S, Arsanjani M, Exact characteristic equations for some of classical boundary conditions of vibrating moderately thick rectangular plates. Int J Solids Struct, 2005; 42(10): 819–853. ##[17] HosseiniHashemi S, Khorshidi K, Amabili, M, Exact solution for linear buckling of rectangular Mindlin plates. J Sound Vib, 2008; 315(3): 318–342. ##[18] HosseiniHashemi S, Khorshidi K, Rokni Damavandi Taher H, Exact acoustical analysis of vibrating rectangular plates with two opposite edges simply supported via Mindlin plate theory. J Sound Vib, 2009; 322(3): 883–900. ##[19] HosseiniHashemi S, Rokni Damavandi Taher H, Akhavan H, Omidi M, Free vibration of functionally graded rectangular plates using firstorder shear deformation plate theory. Int J Eng Sci, 2010; 34(2): 1276–1291. ##[20] Khorshidi K, Elastoplastic response of impacted moderatly thick rectangular plates with different boundary conditions. Procedia Eng, 2011; 10(2): 1742–1747. ##[21] Khorshidi K, Vibroacoustic analysis of Mindlin rectangular plates resting on an elastic foundation. Sci Iranica, 2008; 18(1): 45–52. ##[22] HosseiniHashemi S, Fadaee M, Atashipour SR, A new exact analytical approach for free vibration of Reissner–Mindlin Functionally graded rectangular plates. Int J Mech Sci, 2011; 53(7): 11–22. ##[23] Liu, B., Xing, Y., Exact solutions for free vibrations of orthotropic rectangular Mindlin plates. Compos Struct, 2011. 93(4): 1664–1672. ##[24] Dozio L, Exact vibration solutions for crossply laminated plates with two opposite edges simply supported using refined theories of variable order. J Sound Vib, 2014; 333(2): 2347–2359. ##[25] Leissa AW, The free vibration of rectangular plates. J Sound Vib, 1973; 31(3): 257–293. ##[26] Liew KM, Xiang Y, Kitipornchai S, Transverse vibration of thick rectangular platesI. Comprehensive sets of boundary conditions. Comput Struct, 1993; 49(1): 1–29. ##[27] Liew KM, Hung KC, Lim MK, Vibration of Mindlin plates using boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials. J Sound Vib, 1995; 182(1): 77–90. ##[28] Malik M, Bert CW, Threedimensional elasticity solutions for free vibrations of rectangular plates by the differential quadrature method. Int J Solids Struct, 1998; 35(4): 299–318. ##[29] Liew KM, Hung KC, Lim MK, A continuum threedimensional vibration analysis of thick rectangular plates. Int J Solids Struct, 1993; 30(24): 3357–3379. ##[30] Zhou D, Cheung YK, Au FTK, Lo SH, Threedimensional vibration analysis of thick rectangular plates using Chebyshev polynomial and Ritz method. Int J Solids Struct, 2002; 196(49): 4901–4910.##]
On the Study of Mechanical Properties of Aluminum/NanoAlumina Composites Produced via Powder Injection Molding
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2
Powder Injection Molding (PIM) is a precision manufacturing process used for production of advanced composites. Mixing of polymeric binder with metal powders, molding of feedstock, debinding of brown parts and sintering of green samples are four main steps of this process. In the present study, the compounds containing multicomponent binder system and aluminum/ nanoalumina (09 wt.%) powders were prepared and used as feedstock. After that, the feedstocks were injected, debound and sintered for producing standard specimens. Finally, the sintered composites were produced with a maximum relative density of 97.7%. Afterward, the hardness, yield and ultimate tensile strength of the nanocomposites were evaluated. The results showed that the relative density, hardness and strength of the manufactured composites increased due to the addition of nanoreinforcements. It is demonstrated that the effect of alumina on the density of PIM composites differs from that of conventional powder metallurgy. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveals that the agglomeration takes place in the sample containing 9 wt.% nanoalumina.
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51


Hassan
Abdoos
Semnan University
Semnan University
Iran
hassan.abdoos@gmail.com


Hamid
Khorsand
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
Iran
hkhorsand@kntu.ac.ir


AliAkbar
Yousefi
Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran.
Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute,
Iran
a.yousefi@ippi.ac.ir
Aluminum matrix composite
Nanoreinforcement
Powder injection molding
Mechanical Properties
[[1] Rahimian M, Parvin N, Ehsani N. Investigation of particle size and amount of alumina on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al matrix composite made by powder metallurgy. Mater Sci Eng A 2010; 527(4):10311038. ##[2] Tatar C, Ozdemir N. Investigation of thermal conductivity and microstructure of the αAl2O3 particulate reinforced aluminum composites (Al/Al2O3MMC) by powder metallurgy method. Phys B Condensed Matter 2010, 405(3): 896899. ##[3] Su H, Gao W, Feng Z, Lu Z. Processing, microstructure and tensile properties of nanosized Al2O3 particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites. Mater Des 2012, 36: 590596. ##[4] Ye H, Liu XY, Hong H. Fabrication of metal matrix composites by metal injection molding  A review. J Mater Process Technol 2008, 200(1): 1224. ##[5] Johnson JL, Tan LK. Metal injection molding of heat sinks. Electronics cooling, 2004. ##[6] The A to Z of Materials Science (AZO Materials), AluMIM, Aluminum Injection Molding from Advanced Materials Technologies (AMT), Archive of Articles, 2004, http://www.azom.com /article.aspx? ArticleID = 2396. ##[7] Hesabi ZR, Simchi A, Reihani SS. Structural evolution during mechanical milling of nanometric and micrometric Al2O3 reinforced Al matrix composites. Mater Sci Eng A 2006, 428(1): 159168. ##[8] Onbattuvelli VP, Enneti RK, Park SJ, Atre SV. The effects of nanoparticle addition on SiC and AlN powder–polymer mixtures: Packing and flow behavior. Int J Refractory Metals and Hard Mater 2013, 36: 183190. ##[9] Jia DC. Influence of SiC particulate size on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Al6Ti6Nb matrix composites. Mater Sci Eng A 2000, 289(1): 8390. ##[10] Onbattuvelli VP, Enneti RK, Atre SV. The effects of nanoparticle addition on the sintering and properties of bimodal AlN. Ceram Int 2012, 38(8): 64956499. ##[11] Onbattuvelli VP, Enneti RK, Atre SV. The effects of nanoparticle addition on the densification and properties of SiC. Ceram Int 2012, 38(7): 53935399. ##[12] Khakbiz M, Simchi A, Bagheri R. Analysis of the rheological behavior and stability of 316L stainless steel–TiC powder injection molding feedstock. Mater Sci Eng A 2005, 407(1): 105113. ##[13] Huang B, Fan J, Liang S, Qu X. The rheological and sintering behavior of W–Ni–Fe nanostructured crystalline powder. J Mater Process Technol 2003, 137(1): 177182. ##[14] Kim Y, Lee S, Noh JW, Lee SH, Jeong ID, Park SJ. Rheological and sintering behaviors of nanostructured molybdenum powder. Int J Refractory Metals and Hard Mater 2013, 41: 442448. ##[15] Olhero SM, Ferreira JM. Influence of particle size distribution on rheology and particle packing of silicabased suspensions. Powder Technol 2004, 139(1): 6975. ##[16] Abdoos H, Khorsand H, Yousefi AA. Torque rheometry and rheological analysis of powder–polymer mixture for aluminum powder injection molding. Iranian Polym J 2014, 23(10): 74555. ##[17] Abdoos H, Khorsand H, Yousefi AA. Effect of alumina nanoparticles on the rheological behavior of aluminumbinder mixtures for powder injection molding. Iranian J Polym Sci Technol2014, 27(4): 313324. ##[18] Liu ZY, Sercombe TB, Schaffer GB. Metal injection molding of aluminum alloy 6061 with tin. Powder Metall 2008, 51: 7883. ##[19] Liu ZY, Kent D, Schaffer GB. Powder injection moulding of an Al–AlN metal matrix composite. Mater Sci Eng A. 2009, 513: 352356. ##[20] Ahmad F. Orientation of short fibers in powder injection molded aluminum matrix composites. J Mater Process Technol 2005, 169: 263269. ##[21] Ahmad F. Control of defects in powder injection molded aluminum matrix composites. Int J Powder Metall 2008, 44(3): 6976. ##[22] Udomphol T, Inpanya B, Chuankrerkkul N. Characterization of Feedstocks for Injection Molded SiCpReinforced Al4.5 wt.% Cu Composite. Adv Mater Res 2011, 383: 32343240. ##[23] Rahimian M, Parvin N, Ehsani N. Investigation of particle size and amount of alumina on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al matrix composite made by powder metallurgy. Mater Sci Eng A. 2010, 527(4): 10311038. ##[24] Hassan SF, Gupta M. Development of high performance magnesium nanocomposites using nanoAl2O3 as reinforcement. Mater Sci Eng A 2005, 392(1): 163168. ##[25] Zlatkov BS, Griesmayer E, Loibl H, et al. Recent advances in PIM technology I. Sci Sintering 2008, 40(1): 7988. ##[26] ASTM D1708–02a, Standard test method for tensile properties of plastics by use of microtensile specimens, ASTM International, 2002 ##[27] ASTM E1131, Standard test method for compositional analysis by thermogravimetry, ASTM International, 2005. ##[28] MPIF 43, Method for determination of apparent hardness of powder metallurgy products, Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF), 2010. ##[29] Kim KH, Lee BT, Choi CJ. Fabrication and evaluation of powder injection molded Fe–Ni sintered bodies using nano Fe50% Ni powder. J Alloys Compd 2010, 491(1): 391394. ##[30] Sevik H., Kurnaz SC. Properties of alumina particulate reinforced aluminum alloy produced by pressure die casting. Mater Des 2006, 27(8): 676683. ##[31] Gleiter H. Nanostructured materials: basic concepts and microstructure. Acta Mater 2000, 48(1): 129. ##[32] Rajkovic V, Bozic D, Jovanovic MT. Properties of copper matrix reinforced with nanoand microsized Al2O3 particles. J Alloys Compd 2008, 459(1): 177184. ##[33] Dieter GE, Bacon D. Mechanical metallurgy. McGrawHill, 1986. ##[34] Miller WS, Humphreys FJ. Strengthening mechanisms in particulate metal matrix composites. Scripta Metall Mater 1991, 25(1): 3338. ##[35] Johnson JL. Opportunities for PM Processing of Metal Matrix Composites. Int J Powder Metall 2011, 47(2): 1928.##]
Sizedependent Bending of Geometrically Nonlinear of MicroLaminated Composite Beam based on Modified Couple Stress Theory
2
2
In this study, the effect of finite strain on bending of the geometrically nonlinear of micro laminated composite EulerBernoulli beam based on Modified Couple Stress Theory (MCST) is studied in thermal environment. The GreenLagrange strain tensor according to finite strain assumption and the principle of minimum potential energy is applied to obtain governing equation of motion and boundary conditions. The equation of motion with boundary conditions is solved using a generalized differential quadrature method and then, the deflection of the beam in classical elasticity and MCST states is drawn and compared with each other. Considering the bending of the beam, which has been made of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy materials specified, it can be seen there is a significant difference between the finite strain and vonKarman assumptions particularly for L =10 h. Also, the results show that the thermal loadings have a remarkable effect on the glass/epoxy beam based on the finite strain particularly for simply supported boundary condition.
1

53
62


AhmadReza
Ghasemi
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
Iran
ghasemi@kashanu.ac.ir


Masood
Mohandes
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
Iran
masoodmohandes1366@yahoo.com
Sizedependent
Finite strain
Modifided couple stress theory
Laminated Composite
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Nonlinear bending and thermal postbuckling of functionally graded fiber reinforced composite laminated beams with piezoelectric fiber reinforced composite actuators. Compos Part B 2016; 90: 326335. ##[7] Ghasemi AR, TaheriBehrooz F, Farahani SMN, Mohandes M. Nonlinear Free Vibration of an EulerBernoulli Composite Beam Undergoing Finite Strain Subjected to Different Boundary Conditions. J Vib Cont 2014; DOI: 10.1177/1077546314528965. ##[8] Mohandes M, Ghasemi AR. Finite Strain Analysis of Nonlinear Vibrations of Symmetric Laminated Composite Timoshenko Beams Using Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. J Vib Cont 2016; 22: 940954. ##[9] Mohandes M, Ghasemi AR. Modified Couple Stress Theory and Finite Strain Assumption for Nonlinear Free Vibration and Bending of micro/nanolaminated Composite EulerBernoulli Beam Under Thermal Loading. J Mech Engin Sci Part C 2016; DOI: 10.1177/0954406216656884. ##[10] Ghasemi AR, Mohandes M. Nonlinear Free Vibration of Laminated Composite EulerBernoulli Beams Based on Finite Strain Using GDQM. Mech Adv Mat & Struct. 2016; DOI: 10.1080/15376494.2016.1196794. ##[11] Eringen AC. Theory of micropolar plates. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematik und Physik 1967; 18: 1230. ##[12] Eringen AC. Nonlocal polar elastic continua. Int J Eng Sci 1972; 10: 116. ##[13] Gurtin ME, Weissmuller J and Larche F. The general theory of curved deformable interfaces in solids at equilibrium. Phil Mag A 1998; 78: 10931109. ##[14] Aifantis EC. Strain gradient interpretation of size effects. Int J Fracture 1999; 95: 299314. ##[15] Yang F, Chong ACM, Lam DCC, Tong P. Couple stress based strain gradient theory for elasticity. Int J Solid Struct 2002; 39: 27312743. ##[16] Park SK, Gao XL. EulerBernoulli beam model based on a modified couple stress theory. J Micromech Microengin 2006; 16: 2355. ##[17] Salamattalab M, Nateghi A, Torabi J. Static and Dynamic Analysis of Thirdorder Shear Deformation FG Micro Beam Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2012; 57: 6373. ##[18] Wang YG, Lin WH, Liu N. Large Amplitude Free Vibration of Sizedependent Circular Microplates Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci2013; 71: 5157. ##[19] Jung WY, Park WT, Han SC. Bending and Vibration Analysis of SFGM Microplates Embedded in Pasternak Elastic Medium Using the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2014; 87: 150162. ##[20] Kahrobaiyan MH, Asghari M, Ahmadian MT. A Timoshenko Beam Element Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2014; 79: 7583. ##[21] Shaat M, Mahmoud FF, Gao XL, Faheem AF. Sizedependent Bending Analysis of Kirchhoff Nanoplates Based on a Modified CoupleStress Theory Including Surface Effects. Int J Mech Sci 2014; 79: 3137. ##[22] Farokhi H, Ghayesh MH. Nonlinear Dynamical Behaviour of Geometrically Imperfect Microplates Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2015; 90: 133144. ##[23] Mohammadimehr M, Mohandes M. The Effect of Modified Couple Stress Theory on Buckling and Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Doublelayer Boron Nitride Piezoelectric Plate Based on CPT. J Solid Mech, 2015; 7: 281298. ##[24] Ma HM, Gao XL, Reddy JN. A Microstructuredependent Timoshenko Beam Model Based on a Modified Couple Stress Theory. J Mech Phys Solids 2008; 56: 33793391. ##[25] Asghari M, Kahrobaiyan MH, Ahmadian MT. A Nonlinear Timoshenko Beam Formulation Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Eng Sci 2010; 48: 17491761. ##[26] Chen W, Li L, Xu M, A Modified Couple Stress Model for Bending Analysis of Composite Laminated Beams with First Order Shear Defomation. Compos Struct 2011; 93: 27232732. ##[27] Roque CMC, Fidalgo DS, Ferreira AJM, Reddy JN. A Study of a Microstructuredependent Composite Laminated Timoshenko Beam Using a Modified Couple Stress Theory and a Meshless Method. Compos Struct 2013; 96: 532537. ##[28] Simsek M, Reddy JN. Bending and Vibration of Functionally Graded Micro Beams Using a New Higher Order Beam Theory and the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Eng Sci 2013; 64: 3753. ##[29] Ghayesh MH, Farokhi H, Amabili M. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Micro Scale Beam Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Compos Part B Eng 2013; 50: 318324. ##[30] Ilkhani MR, HosseiniHashemi SH. Size dependent vibrobuckling of rotating beam based on modified couple stress theory. Compos Struct 2016; 143: 7583. ##[31] Mohammadimehr M, Mohandes M, Moradi M. Size Dependent Effect on the Buckling and Vibration Analysis of Doublebonded Nanocomposite Piezoelectric Plate Reinforced by Boron Nitride Nanotube Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory. J Vib Cont 2016; 22: 17901807. ##[32] AkbarzadehKhorshidi M, Shariati M, Emam SA. 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Investigation of Buckling Analysis of Epoxy/ Nanoclay/ Carbon Fiber Hybrid Laminated Nanocomposite: Using VARTM Technique for Preparation
2
2
In the current study the effect of nanoclay content and carbon fiber orientation on the buckling properties of epoxy/nanoclay/ carbon fiber orientation is investigated. Buckling samples were prepared with 1, 3 and 5 wt% of nanoclay and 0, 30 and 45 degrees of fiber orientations based on VARTM technique. The results obtained from the buckling tests showed that adding 1wt% of nanoclay into the pure epoxy in different fiber orientations decreased the magnitude of critical buckling loads and the stress of starting the buckling process. Furthermore, in a constant fiber orientation, increasing the weight percentage of nanoclay increased the magnitude stress of starting the buckling process and the critical buckling load and then decreased them. Moreover, increasing the degree of fiber orientation decreased the buckling loads properties generally. The maximum values of stress of starting the buckling process and critical buckling load were 68.16 Mpa and 3.697 kN respectively which occurred with 3 wt% of nanoclay and 0 degree of fiber orientation.
1

63
71


Yasser
Rostamiyan
Islamic Azad University of Sari
Islamic Azad University of Sari
Iran
yasser.rostamiyan@iausari.ac.ir


Reza
Emrahi
Islamic Azad University of Sari
Islamic Azad University of Sari
Iran
r_emrahi@yahoo.com
Carbon fiber
Laminates
Hybrid
Mechanical Properties
Buckling
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