ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Accelerated Heat Aging Study of Phenolic/Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composites
One of the greatest impediments to use polymer-matrix composites is their susceptibility to degradation when exposed to the elevated temperatures and the limited knowledge on the thermal and mechanical properties of these composites at such temperatures. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of accelerated heat aging on the tensile properties of the Woven Basalt/Phenolic (WBP) composites. Mechanical tests are performed on the specimens, which have previously been subjected to the accelerated heat aging conditions. The specimens were exposed to the constant temperatures in the range of 150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C for various periods of times, and then, the residual tensile properties were measured at room temperature. The specimens were isothermally heated for 1, 2, 5, and 10 hours at the said temperatures and then left to cool naturally to the ambient temperature of about 25 °C. Both the tensile modulus and the ultimate tensile strength of WBP composites decreased with elevated temperatures and these degradations were time and temperature dependent.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_393_7a899c376482689a12e2a8d703ed0bbb.pdf
2016-04-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
1
7
10.22075/macs.2016.393
Polymer-matrix composites
Accelerated heat aging
Basalt fiber
Phenolic resin
Tensile properties
M.
Najafi
moslem.najafi85@yahoo.com
true
1
University of Guilan
University of Guilan
University of Guilan
AUTHOR
S.M.R.
Khalili
khalili@kntu.ac.ir
true
2
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
R.
Eslami-Farsani
eslami@kntu.ac.ir
true
3
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology
AUTHOR
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36
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Curvature on the Mechanical Properties of Graphene: A Density Functional Tight-binding Approach
Due to the high cost of experimental analyses, researchers used atomistic modeling methods for predicting the mechanical behavior of the materials in the fields of nanotechnology. In the pre-sent study the Self-Consistent Charge Density Functional Tight-Binding (SCC-DFTB) was used to calculate Young's moduli and average potential energy of the straight and curved graphenes with different curvature widths under axial strain. Also, this method was used to determine the magnitude of the curvature on the aforementioned mechanical properties. From the results it can be concluded that Young's moduli of straight graphene is equal to 1.3 TPa and this mechanical property decreases slowly by decreasing the curvature width of graphenes. Also, the average potential energy and Young's modulus of graphenes decrease with increasing the number of curvature. In next section the Young's moduli of one-atom vacancy and two-atom vacancy defect were calculated and it was found that this mechanical property decreased with increasing the number of atom vacancy in the curved graphene.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_392_4b63482ba12906f9da678e9206186ce5.pdf
2016-04-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
9
13
10.22075/macs.2016.392
Curved graphene
Density functional tight-binding
Defect
Young's Modulus
Morteza
Ghorbanzadeh-Ahangari
m.ghorbanzadeh@umz.ac.ir
true
1
University of Mazandaran
University of Mazandaran
University of Mazandaran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Rajasekaran G, Narayanan P, Parashar A Effect of Point and Line Defects on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Graphene: A Review. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 2016; 41: 47-71.
1
[2] Parvez K, Wu ZS, Li R, Liu X, Graf R, Feng X, Müllen K Exfoliation of graphite into graphene in aqueous solutions of inorganic salts. J Am Chem Soc 2014; 136: 6083-6091.
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[3] Georgantzinos SK, Giannopoulos GI, Anifantis NK Numerical investigation of elastic mechanical properties of graphene structures. Mater Des 2010; 31: 4646-4654.
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[4] Zhao X, Zhang Q, Chen D, Lu P enhanced mechanical properties of graphene-based poly (vinyl alcohol) composites. Macro-molecules 2010; 43: 2357-2363.
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[5] Stankovich S, Dmitriy AD, Geoffrey HBD, Kevin MK, Eric JZ, Eric AS, Richard DP, SonBinh TN, Rodney SR graphene-based composite materials. Nature 2006; 442: 282-286.
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[6] Li D, Kaner RB graphene-based materials. Nat Nanotechnol 2008; 3: 101.
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[7] Novoselov KSA, Andre KG, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Sci 2004; 306: 666-669.
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[8] Novoselov KSA, Andre KG, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Katsnelson MI, Grigorieva IV, Dubonos SV, Firsov AA two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene. Nature 2005; 438: 197-200.
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[9] Novoselov KS, Jiang Z, Zhang Y, Morozov SV, Stormer HL, Zeitler U, Maan JC, Boebinger GS, Kim P, Geim AK room-temperature quantum Hall effect in graphene. Sci 2007; 315: 1379.
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[10] Meo M, Rossi M prediction of Young’s modulus of single wall carbon nanotubes by molecular-mechanics based finite element modelling. Compos Sci Technol 2006; 66: 1597-605.
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[11] Gomez-Navarro C, Burghard M, Kern K elastic properties of chemically derived single graphene sheets. Nano Lett 2008; 8: 2045-2049.
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[12] Lee C, Wei XD, Kysar JW, Hone J measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Sci 2008; 321: 385-388.
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[13] Balandin AA, Ghosh S, Bao W, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Miao F, Lau CN superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene. Nano Lett 2008; 8: 902-907.
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[14] Van Lier G, Van Alsenoy C, Van Doren V, Geer-lings P ab initio study of the elastic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. Chem Phys Lett 2000; 326: 181-185.
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[15] Chen W, Rakhi RB, Alshareef HN Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte. Nano-scale 2013; 5: 4134-4138.
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[16] Zhou X, Wan LJ, Guo YG Binding SnO2 Nanocrys-tals in Nitrogen‐Doped Graphene Sheets as Anode Materials for Lithium‐Ion Batteries. Adv Mater 2013; 25: 2152-2157.
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[17] Kulkarni GS, Reddy K, Zhong Z, Fan X Graphene nanoelectronic heterodyne sensor for rapid and sensitive vapour detection. Nature Commun 2014; 5: 4376.
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[18] Gilje S, Han S, Wang M, Wang KL, Kaner RB a chemical route to graphene for device applications. Nano Lett 2007; 7: 3394-3398.
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[19] Wang X, Zhi L, Müllen K transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett 2008; 8: 323-327.
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[20] Watcharotone S, et al. graphene-silica composite thin films as transparent conductors. Nano Lett 2007; 7: 1888-1892.
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[21] Yu A, Ramesh P, Itkis ME, Bekyarova E, Haddon RC graphite nanoplatelet-epoxy composite thermal interface materials. J Phys Chem C 2007; 111: 7565-7569.
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[22] Lu Q, Arroyo M, Huang R elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene. J Phys D Appl Phys 2009; 42: 102002.
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[23] Gao Y, Hao P mechanical properties of monolayer graphene under tensile and compressive loading. Physica E 2009; 41: 1561-1566.
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[26] Behfar K, Seifi P, Naghdabadi R, Ghanbari J an analytical approach to determination of bending modulus of a multi-layered graphene sheet. Thin Solid Films 2006; 496: 475-480.
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[27] Shokrieh MM, Rafiee R prediction of Young's modulus of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes using nanoscale continuum mechanics approach. Mater Des 2010; 31: 790-795.
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[28] Shokrieh MM, Rafiee R a review of the mechanical properties of isolated carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube composites. Mech Compos Mater 2010; 46: 155-172.
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33
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34
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Dynamic Stiffness Method for Free Vibration of Moderately Thick Functionally Graded Plates
In this study, a dynamic stiffness method for free vibration analysis of moderately thick function-ally graded material plates is developed. The elasticity modulus and mass density of the plate are assumed to vary according to a power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents whereas Poisson’s ratio is constant. Due to the variation of the elastic properties through the thickness, the equations of motion governing the in-plane and transverse deformations are initially coupled. Using a new reference plane instead of the mid-plane of the plate, the uncoupled differential equations of motions are derived. The out-of-plane equations of motion are solved by introducing the auxiliary and potential functions and using the separation of variables method. Using the method, the exact natural frequencies of the Functionally Graded Plates (FGPs) are obtained for different boundary conditions. The accuracy of the natural frequencies obtained from the present dynamic stiffness method is evaluated by comparing them with those obtained from the methods suggested by other researchers.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_404_4a8de229e6613669f0ab74ee1be95c2a.pdf
2016-04-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
15
30
10.22075/macs.2016.404
Dynamic stiffness method
Free Vibration
Functionally graded material
First-order shear deformation theory
Exact solution
Mohammad-Reza
Soltani
m88_soltani@yahoo.com
true
1
Yasouj University
Yasouj University
Yasouj University
AUTHOR
Shahabeddin
Hatami
hatami@yu.ac.ir
true
2
Yasouj University
Yasouj University
Yasouj University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mojtaba
Azhari
mojtaba@cc.iut.ac.ir
true
3
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan University of Technology
AUTHOR
Hamid-Reza
Ronagh
hamidronagh@gmail.com
true
4
Western Sydney University
Western Sydney University
Western Sydney University
AUTHOR
[1] Mizuguchi F, Ohnabe H. Large deflections of heated functionally graded clamped rectangular plates with varying rigidity in thickness direction. 4th Int Symp Funct Graded Mater, AIST Tsukuba Research Center, Tsukuba, Japan, 1996; 81-86.
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[2] Praveen GN. Reddy JN. Nonlinear transient thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded ceramic-metal plates. Int J Solids Struct 1998; 35(33): 4457-4476.
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[3] Yang J. Shen HS. Dynamic response of initially stressed functionally graded rectangular thin plates. Compos Struct 2001; 54(4): 497-508.
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[4] Yang J. Shen HS. Vibration characteristics and transient response of shear deformable function-ally graded plates in thermal environments. J Sound Vib 2002; 255(3): 579-602
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[5] Ma LS. Wang TJ. Relationships between axisymmetric bending and buckling solutions of FGM circular plates based on third-order plate theory and classical plate theory. Int J Solids Struct 2004; 41(1): 85-101.
5
[6] Kitipornchai S. Yang J. Liew KM. Semi-analytical solution for nonlinear vibration of laminated FGM plates with geometric imperfections. Int J Solids Struct 2004; 41(9-10): 2235-2357.
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[7] Najafizadeh MM. Heydari HR. Thermal buckling of functionally graded circular plates based on higher order shear deformation plate theory. Eur J Mech - A/Solids 2004; 23(6): 1085-1100.
7
[8] Bian ZG. Chen WQ. Lim CW. Zhang N. Analytical solutions for single- and multi-span functionally graded plates in cylindrical bending. Int J Solids Struct 2005; 42(24-25): 6433-6456.
8
[9] Chen, WQ. Bian ZG. Ding HJ. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of fluid-filled orthotropic FGM cylindrical shells. Int J Mech Sci 2004; 46(1): 159-171.
9
[10] Wu L. Liu J. Free vibration analysis of arbitrary shaped thick plates by differential cubature method. Int J Mech Sci 2005; 47(1): 63-81.
10
[11] Abrate S. Free vibration, buckling and static deflections of functionally graded plates. Compos Sci Technol 2006; 66(14): 2383–2394.
11
[12] Hosseini-Hashemi Sh. Fadaee M. Atashipour SR. A New Exact Analytical Approach for Free Vibration of Reissner–Mindlin Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates. Int J Mech Sci 2010; 53(1): 11-22.
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[13] Hosseini-Hashemi Sh. Rokni Damavandi Tahar H. Akhavan H. Omidi M. Free vibration of functionally Graded rectangular plates using first-order shear deformation plate theory. Appl Math Modell 2010; 34(5): 1276-91.
13
[14] Prakash T. Ganapathi M. Asymmetric flexural vibration and thermoelastic stability of FGM circular plates using finite element method. Compos Part B: Eng 2006; 37(7-8): 642-649.
14
[15] Shariyat M. Vibration and dynamic buckling control of imperfect hybrid FGM plates with temperature-dependent material properties subjected to thermo-electro-mechanical loading conditions. Compos Struct 2009; 88(2): 240-252.
15
[16] Afsar AM. Go J. Finite element analysis of thermoelastic field in a rotating FGM circular disk. Appl Math Modell 2010; 34(11): 3309-3320.
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[17] Prakash T. Singha MK. Ganapathi M. A finite element study on the large amplitude flexural vibration characteristics of FGM plates under aerodynamic load. Int J Non-Linear Mech 2012; 47(5): 439-447.
17
[18] Leung AYT. Fung TC. Non-linear vibration of frames by the incremental dynamic stiffness method. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1990; 29(2): 337-356.
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[19] Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness formulation for structural elements: A general approach. Comput Struct 1995; 63(1): 101-103.
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[20] Bercin AN. Analysis of orthotropic plate structures by the direct -dynamic stiffness method. Mech Res Commun 1995; 22(5): 461-466.
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[21] Bercin AN. Langley RS. Application of the dynamic stiffness technique to the in-plane vibrations of plate structures. Comput Struct 1996; 59(5): 869-875.
21
[22] Bercin AN. Analysis of energy flow in thick plate structures. Comput Struct 1997; 62(4): 747-756.
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[23] Bercin AN. Eigenfrequencies of rectangular plate assemblies. Comput Struct 1997; 65(5): 703-711.
23
[24] Birgersson F. Ferguson NS. Finnveden S. Applica-tion of the spectral finite element method to turbulent boundray layer induced vibration of plates. J Sound Vib 2003; 259(4): 873-891.
24
[25] Hatami S. Azhari M. Dynamic stiffness analysis of orthotropic plates moving on some rollers and an elastic foundation, 7th Int Congr Civil Eng. Tarbiat Modarres University, 2006; 20-22,:
25
[26] Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness elements and their applications for plates using first order shear deformation theory. Comput Struct 2011; 89(3-4): 395-410.
26
[27] Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness for-mulation for composite Mindlin plates for exact modal analysis of structures. Part I: Theory. Comput Struct 2012; 96-97: 61-73.
27
[28] Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness method for exact in-plane free vibration analysis of plates and plate assemblies. J Sound Vib 2011; 330(12): 2928-36.
28
[29] Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. Dynamic stiffness formulation for composite Mindlin plates for exact modal analysis of structures. Part II: Results and applications. Comput Struct 2012; 96-97: 74-83.
29
[30] Fazzolari FA. Boscolo M. Banerjee JR. An exact dynamic stiffness element using a higher order shear deformation theory for free vibration analysis of composite plate assemblies. Compos Struct 2013; 96: 262-278.
30
[31] Wittrick WH. Williams FW. A general algorithm for computing natural frequncies of elastic structures. J Mech Appl Math 1971; 24(3): 263-284.
31
[32] Nefovska-Danilovic M. Petronijevic M. In-plane free vibration and response analysis of isotropic rectangular plates using the dynamic stiffness method. Comput Struct 2015; 152: 82-95.
32
[33] Liu X. Banerjee JR. Free vibration analysis for plates with arbitrary boundary conditions using a novel spectral-dynamic stiffness method. Comput Struct 2016; 164: 108-126
33
[34] Reddy JN. Theory and analysis of elastic plates and shells, New York: CRC Taylor & Francis Group; 2007.
34
[35] Abrate S. Functionally graded plates behave like homogeneous plates. Compos Part B: Eng 2008; 39(1): 151-158.
35
[36] Mindlin RD. Influence of rotary inertia and shear on flexural motions of isotropic, elastic plates. J Appl Mech 1951; 18: 31-38.
36
[37] Zhao X. Lee Y. LiewK. Free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates using the element-free kp-Ritz method. J Sound Vib 2009; 918-39.
37
[38] Matsunaga H. Free vibration and stability of functionally graded plates according to a 2-D higher-order deformation theory. Compos Struct 2008; 319(3-5): 499-512.
38
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Precision Closed-form Solution for Out-of-plane Vibration of Rectangular Plates via Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory
In this study, the new refine trigonometric shear deformation plate theory is used to study the out-of-plane vibration of the rectangular isotropic plates with different boundary conditions. The novelty of the research is that the analytical precision closed-form solution is developed without any use of approximation for a combination of six different boundary conditions; specifically, two opposite edges are simply supported hard and any of the other two edges can be simply supported hard, clamped or free. The equations of motion and natural boundary conditions, using Hamilton’s principle are derived. The present analytical precision closed-form solution can be obtained with any required accuracy and can be used as benchmark. Based on a comparison with the previously published results, the accuracy of the results is shown. Finally, the effect of boundary conditions, variations of aspect ratios and thickness ratios on natural frequency parameters is shown and the relation between natural frequencies for different plates is examined and dis-cussed in detail.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_371_80ce652e36032695498fb8727b492c12.pdf
2016-04-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
31
43
10.22075/macs.2016.371
vibration
Precision closed-form solution
Trigonometric shear deformation theory
Korosh
Khorshidi
k-khorshidi@araku.ac.ir
true
1
Arak University
Arak University
Arak University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohammad
Khodadadi
m-khodadadii@arshad.araku.ac.ir
true
2
Arak University
Arak University
Arak University
AUTHOR
[1] Leissa AW, Recent Studies in Plate Vibration 1982-1985, Part-I Classical Theory, Shock Vib Digest, 1987; 19(3): 11–18.
1
[2] Reissner E, On the theory of bending of elastic plates. J Math Phys, 1944; 23(3): 184–191.
2
[3] Reissner E, The effect of transverse shear deformation on the bending of elastic plates. ASME J Appl Mech, 1945; 12(5): 69–77.
3
[4] Mindlin RD, Influence of rotatory inertia and shear on flexural motions of isotropic, elastic plates. ASME J Appl Mech, 1951; 18(5): 31–38.
4
[5] Kim J, Cho M, Enhanced first-order shear deformation theory for laminated and sandwich plates. J Appl Mech, 2005; 72(6): 809–817.
5
[6] Reddy JN, Theory and analysis of elastic plates and shells. CRC Press, 2007.
6
[7] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Jorge RMN, Electrochemical Analysis of composite plates by trigonometric shear deformation theory and multi quadrics. Comput Struct, 2005; 83(1): 2225–2237.
7
[8] Xiang S, Wang KM, Free vibration analysis of symmetric laminated composite plates by trigonometric shear deformation theory and inverse multi quadric RBF. Thin-Walled Struct, 2009; 47(6): 304–310.
8
[9] Mantari JL, Oktem AS, Guedes Soares C, A new trigonometric shear deformation theory for isotropic, laminated composite and sandwich plates. Int J Solids Struct, 2012; 49(4): 43–53.
9
[10] Mantari JL, Oktem AS, Guedes Soares C, A new trigonometric layerwise shear deformation theory for the finite element analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates. Comput Struct, 2012; 94(7): 45–53.
10
[11] Tounsi A, Houari MSA, Benyoucef S, Bedia EAA, A refined trigonometric shear deformation theory for thermoelastic bending of functionally graded sandwich plates. Aero Sci Technol, 2013; 24(6): 209–220.
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[12] Tornabene F, Viola E, Fantuzzi N, General higher-order equivalent single layer theory for free vibrations of doubly-curved laminated composite shells and panels. Compos Struct, 2013; 104(31): 94–117.
12
[13] Rango RF, Nallim LG, Oller S, Formulation of enriched macro elements using trigonometric shear deformation theory for free vibration analysis of symmetric laminated composite plate assemblies. Compos Struct, 2015; 119(2): 38–49.
13
[14] Sahoo R, Singh BN, A new trigonometric zigzag theory for static analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates. Aero Sci Technol, 2014; 35(5): 15–28.
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[15] Vel SS, Batra RC, Three-dimensional exact solution for the vibration of functionally graded rectangular plates. J Sound Vib, 2004; 272: 703–730.
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[16] Hosseini-Hashemi S, Arsanjani M, Exact characteristic equations for some of classical boundary conditions of vibrating moderately thick rectangular plates. Int J Solids Struct, 2005; 42(10): 819–853.
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[17] Hosseini-Hashemi S, Khorshidi K, Amabili, M, Exact solution for linear buckling of rectangular Mindlin plates. J Sound Vib, 2008; 315(3): 318–342.
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[18] Hosseini-Hashemi S, Khorshidi K, Rokni Damavandi Taher H, Exact acoustical analysis of vibrating rectangular plates with two opposite edges simply supported via Mindlin plate theory. J Sound Vib, 2009; 322(3): 883–900.
18
[19] Hosseini-Hashemi S, Rokni Damavandi Taher H, Akhavan H, Omidi M, Free vibration of functionally graded rectangular plates using first-order shear deformation plate theory. Int J Eng Sci, 2010; 34(2): 1276–1291.
19
[20] Khorshidi K, Elasto-plastic response of impacted moderatly thick rectangular plates with different boundary conditions. Procedia Eng, 2011; 10(2): 1742–1747.
20
[21] Khorshidi K, Vibro-acoustic analysis of Mindlin rectangular plates resting on an elastic foundation. Sci Iranica, 2008; 18(1): 45–52.
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[22] Hosseini-Hashemi S, Fadaee M, Atashipour SR, A new exact analytical approach for free vibration of Reissner–Mindlin Functionally graded rectangular plates. Int J Mech Sci, 2011; 53(7): 11–22.
22
[23] Liu, B., Xing, Y., Exact solutions for free vibrations of orthotropic rectangular Mindlin plates. Compos Struct, 2011. 93(4): 1664–1672.
23
[24] Dozio L, Exact vibration solutions for cross-ply laminated plates with two opposite edges simply supported using refined theories of variable order. J Sound Vib, 2014; 333(2): 2347–2359.
24
[25] Leissa AW, The free vibration of rectangular plates. J Sound Vib, 1973; 31(3): 257–293.
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[26] Liew KM, Xiang Y, Kitipornchai S, Transverse vibration of thick rectangular plates-I. Comprehensive sets of boundary conditions. Comput Struct, 1993; 49(1): 1–29.
26
[27] Liew KM, Hung KC, Lim MK, Vibration of Mindlin plates using boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials. J Sound Vib, 1995; 182(1): 77–90.
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[28] Malik M, Bert CW, Three-dimensional elasticity solutions for free vibrations of rectangular plates by the differential quadrature method. Int J Solids Struct, 1998; 35(4): 299–318.
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[29] Liew KM, Hung KC, Lim MK, A continuum three-dimensional vibration analysis of thick rectangular plates. Int J Solids Struct, 1993; 30(24): 3357–3379.
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[30] Zhou D, Cheung YK, Au FTK, Lo SH, Three-dimensional vibration analysis of thick rectangular plates using Chebyshev polynomial and Ritz method. Int J Solids Struct, 2002; 196(49): 4901–4910.
30
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
On the Study of Mechanical Properties of Aluminum/Nano-Alumina Composites Produced via Powder Injection Molding
Powder Injection Molding (PIM) is a precision manufacturing process used for production of advanced composites. Mixing of polymeric binder with metal powders, molding of feedstock, de-binding of brown parts and sintering of green samples are four main steps of this process. In the present study, the compounds containing multi-component binder system and aluminum/ nano-alumina (0-9 wt.%) powders were prepared and used as feedstock. After that, the feed-stocks were injected, de-bound and sintered for producing standard specimens. Finally, the sintered composites were produced with a maximum relative density of 97.7%. Afterward, the hardness, yield and ultimate tensile strength of the nano-composites were evaluated. The results showed that the relative density, hardness and strength of the manufactured composites increased due to the addition of nano-reinforcements. It is demonstrated that the effect of alumina on the density of PIM composites differs from that of conventional powder metallurgy. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveals that the agglomeration takes place in the sample containing 9 wt.% nano-alumina.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_401_dbf0409ee9c7cc24a556019e87578a1d.pdf
2016-04-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
45
51
10.22075/macs.2016.401
Aluminum matrix composite
Nano-reinforcement
Powder injection molding
Mechanical properties
Hassan
Abdoos
hassan.abdoos@gmail.com
true
1
Semnan University
Semnan University
Semnan University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hamid
Khorsand
hkhorsand@kntu.ac.ir
true
2
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
K.N. Toosi University of Technology
AUTHOR
Ali-Akbar
Yousefi
a.yousefi@ippi.ac.ir
true
3
Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran.
Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran.
Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] Rahimian M, Parvin N, Ehsani N. Investigation of particle size and amount of alumina on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al matrix composite made by powder metallurgy. Mater Sci Eng A 2010; 527(4):1031-1038.
1
[2] Tatar C, Ozdemir N. Investigation of thermal conductivity and microstructure of the α-Al2O3 particulate reinforced aluminum composites (Al/Al2O3-MMC) by powder metallurgy method. Phys B Condensed Matter 2010, 405(3): 896-899.
2
[3] Su H, Gao W, Feng Z, Lu Z. Processing, micro-structure and tensile properties of nano-sized Al2O3 particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites. Mater Des 2012, 36: 590-596.
3
[4] Ye H, Liu XY, Hong H. Fabrication of metal matrix composites by metal injection molding - A review. J Mater Process Technol 2008, 200(1): 12-24.
4
[5] Johnson JL, Tan LK. Metal injection molding of heat sinks. Electronics cooling, 2004.
5
[6] The A to Z of Materials Science (AZO Materials), AluMIM, Aluminum Injection Molding from Advanced Materials Technologies (AMT), Archive of Articles, 2004, http://www.azom.com /article.aspx? ArticleID = 2396.
6
[7] Hesabi ZR, Simchi A, Reihani SS. Structural evolution during mechanical milling of nanometric and micrometric Al2O3 reinforced Al matrix composites. Mater Sci Eng A 2006, 428(1): 159-168.
7
[8] Onbattuvelli VP, Enneti RK, Park SJ, Atre SV. The effects of nanoparticle addition on SiC and AlN powder–polymer mixtures: Packing and flow behavior. Int J Refractory Metals and Hard Mater 2013, 36: 183-190.
8
[9] Jia DC. Influence of SiC particulate size on the microstructural evolution and mechanical prop-erties of Al-6Ti-6Nb matrix composites. Mater Sci Eng A 2000, 289(1): 83-90.
9
[10] Onbattuvelli VP, Enneti RK, Atre SV. The effects of nanoparticle addition on the sintering and properties of bimodal AlN. Ceram Int 2012, 38(8): 6495-6499.
10
[11] Onbattuvelli VP, Enneti RK, Atre SV. The effects of nanoparticle addition on the densification and properties of SiC. Ceram Int 2012, 38(7): 5393-5399.
11
[12] Khakbiz M, Simchi A, Bagheri R. Analysis of the rheological behavior and stability of 316L stain-less steel–TiC powder injection molding feedstock. Mater Sci Eng A 2005, 407(1): 105-113.
12
[13] Huang B, Fan J, Liang S, Qu X. The rheological and sintering behavior of W–Ni–Fe nano-structured crystalline powder. J Mater Process Technol 2003, 137(1): 177-182.
13
[14] Kim Y, Lee S, Noh JW, Lee SH, Jeong ID, Park SJ. Rheological and sintering behaviors of nanostructured molybdenum powder. Int J Refractory Metals and Hard Mater 2013, 41: 442-448.
14
[15] Olhero SM, Ferreira JM. Influence of particle size distribution on rheology and particle packing of silica-based suspensions. Powder Technol 2004, 139(1): 69-75.
15
[16] Abdoos H, Khorsand H, Yousefi AA. Torque rheometry and rheological analysis of powder–polymer mixture for aluminum powder injection molding. Iranian Polym J 2014, 23(10): 745-55.
16
[17] Abdoos H, Khorsand H, Yousefi AA. Effect of alumina nanoparticles on the rheological behavior of aluminum-binder mixtures for pow-der injection molding. Iranian J Polym Sci Tech-nol2014, 27(4): 313-324.
17
[18] Liu ZY, Sercombe TB, Schaffer GB. Metal injection molding of aluminum alloy 6061 with tin. Powder Metall 2008, 51: 78-83.
18
[19] Liu ZY, Kent D, Schaffer GB. Powder injection moulding of an Al–AlN metal matrix composite. Mater Sci Eng A. 2009, 513: 352-356.
19
[20] Ahmad F. Orientation of short fibers in powder injection molded aluminum matrix composites. J Mater Process Technol 2005, 169: 263-269.
20
[21] Ahmad F. Control of defects in powder injection molded aluminum matrix composites. Int J Powder Metall 2008, 44(3): 69-76.
21
[22] Udomphol T, Inpanya B, Chuankrerkkul N. Char-acterization of Feedstocks for Injection Molded SiCp-Reinforced Al-4.5 wt.% Cu Composite. Adv Mater Res 2011, 383: 3234-3240.
22
[23] Rahimian M, Parvin N, Ehsani N. Investigation of particle size and amount of alumina on micro-structure and mechanical properties of Al matrix composite made by powder metallurgy. Mater Sci Eng A. 2010, 527(4): 1031-1038.
23
[24] Hassan SF, Gupta M. Development of high performance magnesium nano-composites using nano-Al2O3 as reinforcement. Mater Sci Eng A 2005, 392(1): 163-168.
24
[25] Zlatkov BS, Griesmayer E, Loibl H, et al. Recent advances in PIM technology I. Sci Sintering 2008, 40(1): 79-88.
25
[26] ASTM D1708–02a, Standard test method for tensile properties of plastics by use of microtensile specimens, ASTM International, 2002
26
[27] ASTM E1131, Standard test method for com-positional analysis by thermo-gravimetry, ASTM International, 2005.
27
[28] MPIF 43, Method for determination of apparent hardness of powder metallurgy products, Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF), 2010.
28
[29] Kim KH, Lee BT, Choi CJ. Fabrication and evaluation of powder injection molded Fe–Ni sintered bodies using nano Fe-50% Ni powder. J Alloys Compd 2010, 491(1): 391-394.
29
[30] Sevik H., Kurnaz SC. Properties of alumina particulate reinforced aluminum alloy produced by pressure die casting. Mater Des 2006, 27(8): 676-683.
30
[31] Gleiter H. Nanostructured materials: basic concepts and microstructure. Acta Mater 2000, 48(1): 1-29.
31
[32] Rajkovic V, Bozic D, Jovanovic MT. Properties of copper matrix reinforced with nano-and micro-sized Al2O3 particles. J Alloys Compd 2008, 459(1): 177-184.
32
[33] Dieter GE, Bacon D. Mechanical metallurgy. McGraw-Hill, 1986.
33
[34] Miller WS, Humphreys FJ. Strengthening mechanisms in particulate metal matrix composites. Scripta Metall Mater 1991, 25(1): 33-38.
34
[35] Johnson JL. Opportunities for PM Processing of Metal Matrix Composites. Int J Powder Metall 2011, 47(2): 19-28.
35
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Size-dependent Bending of Geometrically Nonlinear of Micro-Laminated Composite Beam based on Modified Couple Stress Theory
In this study, the effect of finite strain on bending of the geometrically nonlinear of micro laminated composite Euler-Bernoulli beam based on Modified Couple Stress Theory (MCST) is studied in thermal environment. The Green-Lagrange strain tensor according to finite strain assumption and the principle of minimum potential energy is applied to obtain governing equation of motion and boundary conditions. The equation of motion with boundary conditions is solved using a generalized differential quadrature method and then, the deflection of the beam in classical elasticity and MCST states is drawn and compared with each other. Considering the bending of the beam, which has been made of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy materials specified, it can be seen there is a significant difference between the finite strain and von-Karman assumptions particularly for L =10 h. Also, the results show that the thermal loadings have a remarkable effect on the glass/epoxy beam based on the finite strain particularly for simply supported boundary condition.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_434_1d43fc7a8babba8d5b0f6e21d46e7bd6.pdf
2016-04-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
53
62
10.22075/macs.2016.434
Size-dependent
Finite strain
Modifided couple stress theory
Laminated Composite
Ahmad-Reza
Ghasemi
ghasemi@kashanu.ac.ir
true
1
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
LEAD_AUTHOR
Masood
Mohandes
masoodmohandes1366@yahoo.com
true
2
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
AUTHOR
[1] Chandra R, Stemple AD, Chopra I. Thin-walled Composite Beams under Bending, Torsional, and Extensional Loads. J Aircraft 1990; 27: 619-626.
1
[2] Maiti DK, Sinha PK. Bending and Free Vibration Analysis of Shear Deformable Laminated Composite Beams by Finite Element Method. Compos Struct 1994; 29; 421-431.
2
[3] Khdeir AA, Reddy JN. An Exact Solution for the Bending of Thin and Thick Cross-ply Laminated Beams. Compos Struct 1997; 37: 197-203.
3
[4] Xiong J, Ma L, Stocchi A, Yang J, Wu L, Pan S. Bending response of carbon fiber composite sandwich beams with three dimensional honey-comb cores. Compos Struct 2014; 108: 234-242.
4
[5] Sayyad AS, Ghugal YM, Naik NS. Bending analysis of laminated composite and sandwich beams according to refined trigonometric beam theory. Curved Layer Struct 2015; 2: 279-289.
5
[6] Shen HS, Chen X, Huang XL. Nonlinear bending and thermal postbuckling of functionally graded fiber reinforced composite laminated beams with piezoelectric fiber reinforced composite actuators. Compos Part B 2016; 90: 326-335.
6
[7] Ghasemi AR, Taheri-Behrooz F, Farahani SMN, Mohandes M. Nonlinear Free Vibration of an Euler-Bernoulli Composite Beam Undergoing Finite Strain Subjected to Different Boundary Conditions. J Vib Cont 2014; DOI: 10.1177/1077546314528965.
7
[8] Mohandes M, Ghasemi AR. Finite Strain Analysis of Nonlinear Vibrations of Symmetric Laminated Composite Timoshenko Beams Using Generalized Differential Quadrature Method. J Vib Cont 2016; 22: 940-954.
8
[9] Mohandes M, Ghasemi AR. Modified Couple Stress Theory and Finite Strain Assumption for Nonlinear Free Vibration and Bending of micro/nanolaminated Composite Euler-Bernoulli Beam Under Thermal Loading. J Mech Engin Sci Part C 2016; DOI: 10.1177/0954406216656884.
9
[10] Ghasemi AR, Mohandes M. Nonlinear Free Vibration of Laminated Composite Euler-Bernoulli Beams Based on Finite Strain Using GDQM. Mech Adv Mat & Struct. 2016; DOI: 10.1080/15376494.2016.1196794.
10
[11] Eringen AC. Theory of micropolar plates. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematik und Physik 1967; 18: 12-30.
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[12] Eringen AC. Nonlocal polar elastic continua. Int J Eng Sci 1972; 10: 1-16.
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[13] Gurtin ME, Weissmuller J and Larche F. The general theory of curved deformable interfaces in solids at equilibrium. Phil Mag A 1998; 78: 1093-1109.
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[14] Aifantis EC. Strain gradient interpretation of size effects. Int J Fracture 1999; 95: 299-314.
14
[15] Yang F, Chong ACM, Lam DCC, Tong P. Couple stress based strain gradient theory for elasticity. Int J Solid Struct 2002; 39: 2731-2743.
15
[16] Park SK, Gao XL. Euler-Bernoulli beam model based on a modified couple stress theory. J Micromech Microengin 2006; 16: 2355.
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[17] Salamat-talab M, Nateghi A, Torabi J. Static and Dynamic Analysis of Third-order Shear Deformation FG Micro Beam Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2012; 57: 63-73.
17
[18] Wang YG, Lin WH, Liu N. Large Amplitude Free Vibration of Size-dependent Circular Microplates Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci2013; 71: 51-57.
18
[19] Jung WY, Park WT, Han SC. Bending and Vibra-tion Analysis of S-FGM Microplates Embedded in Pasternak Elastic Medium Using the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2014; 87: 150-162.
19
[20] Kahrobaiyan MH, Asghari M, Ahmadian MT. A Timoshenko Beam Element Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2014; 79: 75-83.
20
[21] Shaat M, Mahmoud FF, Gao XL, Faheem AF. Size-dependent Bending Analysis of Kirchhoff Nano-plates Based on a Modified Couple-Stress Theory Including Surface Effects. Int J Mech Sci 2014; 79: 31-37.
21
[22] Farokhi H, Ghayesh MH. Nonlinear Dynamical Behaviour of Geometrically Imperfect Micro-plates Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2015; 90: 133-144.
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[23] Mohammadimehr M, Mohandes M. The Effect of Modified Couple Stress Theory on Buckling and Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Double-layer Boron Nitride Piezoelectric Plate Based on CPT. J Solid Mech, 2015; 7: 281-298.
23
[24] Ma HM, Gao XL, Reddy JN. A Microstructure-dependent Timoshenko Beam Model Based on a Modified Couple Stress Theory. J Mech Phys Sol-ids 2008; 56: 3379-3391.
24
[25] Asghari M, Kahrobaiyan MH, Ahmadian MT. A Nonlinear Timoshenko Beam Formulation Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Eng Sci 2010; 48: 1749-1761.
25
[26] Chen W, Li L, Xu M, A Modified Couple Stress Model for Bending Analysis of Composite Laminated Beams with First Order Shear Defo-mation. Compos Struct 2011; 93: 2723-2732.
26
[27] Roque CMC, Fidalgo DS, Ferreira AJM, Reddy JN. A Study of a Microstructure-dependent Composite Laminated Timoshenko Beam Using a Modified Couple Stress Theory and a Meshless Meth-od. Compos Struct 2013; 96: 532-537.
27
[28] Simsek M, Reddy JN. Bending and Vibration of Functionally Graded Micro Beams Using a New Higher Order Beam Theory and the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Int J Eng Sci 2013; 64: 37-53.
28
[29] Ghayesh MH, Farokhi H, Amabili M. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Micro Scale Beam Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Compos Part B Eng 2013; 50: 318-324.
29
[30] Ilkhani MR, Hosseini-Hashemi SH. Size depend-ent vibro-buckling of rotating beam based on modified couple stress theory. Compos Struct 2016; 143: 75-83.
30
[31] Mohammadimehr M, Mohandes M, Moradi M. Size Dependent Effect on the Buckling and Vibration Analysis of Double-bonded Nanocomposite Piezoelectric Plate Reinforced by Boron Nitride Nanotube Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory. J Vib Cont 2016; 22: 1790-1807.
31
[32] Akbarzadeh-Khorshidi M, Shariati M, Emam SA. Post Buckling of Functionally Graded Nano-beams based on Modified Couple Stress Theory under General Beam Theory. Int J Mech Sci 2016; 110: 160-169.
32
[33] Akgoz B, Civalek O. Free Vibration Analysis of Axially Functionally Graded Tapered Euler-Bernoulli Micro Beams Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory. Compos Struct 2013; 98: 314-322.
33
[34] Reddy JN. Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates and Shells. CRC Press; 2003.
34
[35] Sourki R, Hoseini SAH. Free vibration analysis of size-dependent cracked microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory. Appl Phys A 2016; 122: 413.
35
[36] Reddy JN. Energy Principles and Variational Methods in Applied Mechanics John Wiley; 2002.
36
[37] Simsek M, Yurtcu HH. Analytical solutions for bending and buckling of functionally graded nanobeams based on the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory. Compos Struct 2013; 97: 378-386.
37
[38] Pradhan SC, Murmu T. Small Scale Effect on the Buckling of Single-layered Graphene Sheets under Biaxial Compression via Nonlocal Continuum Mechanics. Comput Mater Sci 2009; 47: 268-274.
38
[39] Wang YG, Lin WH, Liu N. Nonlinear Free Vibra-tion of a Microscale Beam Based on Modified Couple Stress Theory. Phys E 2013; 47: 80-85.
39
[40] Zhang LW, Lei ZX, Liew KM, Yu JL. Static and Dynamic of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Functionally Graded Cylindrical Panels. Compos Struct 2014; 111: 205-212.
40
[41] Bert CW, Malik M. Differential quadrature method in computational mechanics: a review. Appl Mech Reviews 1996; 49: 1-27.
41
[42] Du H, Lim MK, Lin RM. Application of General-ized Differential Quadrature to Vibration Analysis. J Sound Vib 1995; 181: 279-293.
42
[43] Wu YL, Shu C. Development of RBF-DQ method for derivative approximation and its application to simulate natural convection in concentric annuli. Comput Mech 2002; 29: 477-485.
43
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Investigation of Buckling Analysis of Epoxy/ Nanoclay/ Carbon Fiber Hybrid Laminated Nanocomposite: Using VARTM Technique for Preparation
In the current study the effect of nanoclay content and carbon fiber orientation on the buckling properties of epoxy/nanoclay/ carbon fiber orientation is investigated. Buckling samples were prepared with 1, 3 and 5 wt% of nanoclay and 0, 30 and 45 degrees of fiber orientations based on VARTM technique. The results obtained from the buckling tests showed that adding 1wt% of nanoclay into the pure epoxy in different fiber orientations decreased the magnitude of critical buckling loads and the stress of starting the buckling process. Furthermore, in a constant fiber orientation, increasing the weight percentage of nanoclay increased the magnitude stress of starting the buckling process and the critical buckling load and then decreased them. Moreover, in-creasing the degree of fiber orientation decreased the buckling loads properties generally. The maximum values of stress of starting the buckling process and critical buckling load were 68.16 Mpa and 3.697 kN respectively which occurred with 3 wt% of nanoclay and 0 degree of fiber orientation.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_435_dc7495e28570794fcc7958573ee39ea8.pdf
2016-04-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
63
71
10.22075/macs.2016.435
Carbon fiber
Laminates
Hybrid
Mechanical properties
Buckling
Yasser
Rostamiyan
yasser.rostamiyan@iausari.ac.ir
true
1
Islamic Azad University of Sari
Islamic Azad University of Sari
Islamic Azad University of Sari
LEAD_AUTHOR
Reza
Emrahi
r_emrahi@yahoo.com
true
2
Islamic Azad University of Sari
Islamic Azad University of Sari
Islamic Azad University of Sari
AUTHOR
[1] Xu M, Hu J, Zou X, Liu M, Dong S, Zou Y, Liu X. Me-chanical and thermal enhancements of benzoxazine-based GF composite laminated by in situ reaction with carboxyl functionalized CNTs. J Appl Polymer Sci, 2013; 129(5): 2629-2637.
1
[2] Vallittu PK. Flexural properties of acrylic resin polymers reinforced with unidirectional and woven glass fibers. J Prosthetic Dentistry, 1999; 81(3): 318-326.
2
[3] Sain SP. Injection-molded short hemp fiber/glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites- Mechanical, water absoprtion and thermal properties. J Appl Polymer Sci. 2007; 103(4): 2432-2441.
3
[4] Eronat N, Candan U, Turkun M. Effects of glass fiber layering on the flexural strength of microfill and hybrid composites. J Esthetic Restorative Dentistry, 2009; 21(3): 171-178.
4
[5] Bekyarova E, Thostenson ET, Yu A, Kim H, Gao J. Multiscale carbon nanotube-carbon fiber reinforcement for advanced epoxy composites. Langmuir, 2007; 23(7): 3970-3974.
5
[6] Godara A, Mezzo L, Luizi F, Warrier A, Lomov SV, van Vuure AW, Gorbatikh L, Moldenaers P, Verpoest I. Influence of carbon nanotube reinforcement on the processing and the mechanical behaviour of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Carbon, 2009; 47(12): 2914-2923.
6
[7] Wu X, Wang Y, Xie L, Yu J, Liu F, Jiang P. Thermal and electrical properties of epoxy composites at high alumina loadings and various temperatures. Iranian Polymer J, 2013; 22(1): 61-73.
7
[8] LeBaron PC, Wang Z, Pinnavaia TJ. Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: an overview. Appl Clay Sci, 1999; 15(1-2): 11-29.
8
[9] Xu Y, Hoa SV. Mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol, 2008; 68(3-4): 854-861.
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[10] Mirmohseni A, Zavareh S. Epoxy/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer/clay ternary nanocomposite as impact toughened epoxy. J Polymer Res, 2010; 17(2): 191-201.
10
[11] Gojny FH, Wichmann MHG, Fiedler B, Bauhofer W, Schulte K. Influence of nano-modification on the mechanical and electrical properties of conventional fibre-reinforced composites. Compos Part A: Appl Sci Manuf, 2005; 36(11): 1525-1535.
11
[12] Becker O, Varley RJ, Simon GP, Thermal stability and water uptake of high performance epoxy layered silicate nanocomposites. Eur Polymer J, 2004; 40(1): 187-195.
12
[13] Ragosta G, Musto AM, Scarinzi G, Mascia L. Epoxy-silica particulate nano composites: Chemical interactions, reinforcement fracture toughness poly-mer. Polymer, 2005; 46: 10506-10516.
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[14] Zheng Y, Zheng Y, Ning R. Effects of nanoparticles SiO2 on the performance of nanocomposites. Mater Let, 2003; 57(19): 2940-2944.
14
[15] Uddin MF, Sun CT. Improved dispersion and mechanical properties of hybrid nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol, 2010; 70(2): 223-230.
15
[16] Fereidoon A, Mashhadzadeh HA, Rostamiyan Y. Experimental, modeling and optimization study on the mechanical properties of epoxy/high-impact poly-styrene/multi-walled carbon nanotube ternary nano-composite using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm. Sci Eng Compos Mater, 2013; 20(3): 265-276.
16
[17] Rostamiyan Y, Fereidoon AH, Mashhadzadeh AH, Khalili MA. Augmenting epoxy toughness by combination of both thermoplastic and nanolayered materials and using artificial intelligence techniques for modeling and optimization. J Polymer Res, 2013; 20(6): 1-11.
17
[18] Mirmohseni A, Zavareh S. Modeling and optimization of a new impact-toughened epoxy nanocomposite using response surface methodology. J Polymer Res, 2011; 18(4): 509-517.
18
[19] Rostamiyan Y, Fereidoon AH, Mashhadzadeh AH, Rezaei Ashtiyani M, Salmankhani A. Using response surface methodology for modeling and optimizing tensile and impact strength properties of fiber orientated quaternary hybrid nano composite. Compos Part B: Eng, 2015; 69: 304-316.
19