ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Particle Size on the Structural and Mechanical Properties of Al–AlN Nanocomposites Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying
Nanostructured Al composites with 2.5 wt.% aluminum nitride (AlN) were fabricated by powder metallurgy using mechanically milled aluminum powder mixed in a planetary ball mill with different particle sizes of AlN (50 nm and 1 μm) as reinforcement. After 20 h milling, the powders were die-pressed uniaxially in a steel die and then sintered at 670 °C for 2 h. The morphologies and properties of the obtained powders were determined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results have indicated that the crystallite sizes of the composites decreased by increasing the milling time, resulting in sizes of 46 nm and 55 nm for the composites containing large (1 μm) and small (50 nm) AlN particles, respectively. After 20 h of milling, the microhardness of the nanocomposites with AlN particle sizes of 1 μm and 50 nm were 101 and 122, respectively. The flexural strength of the composite containing smaller AlN particles (50 nm) was higher than that of the composite containing larger AlN particles (1 μm). The testing results have indicated that the strength and hardness properties of the composite containing smaller AlN particles are better than those of the composite with larger AlN particles.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_394_b2e8bd6cbf080403db4150a7050b3f0b.pdf
2015-11-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
73
78
10.22075/macs.2015.394
Mechanical properties
Powder characteristics
Al/B4C nanocomposite
Mechanical alloying
H.
Ghods
true
1
Department of Materials Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran
Department of Materials Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran
Department of Materials Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran
AUTHOR
S.A.
Manafi
true
2
Department of Materials Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran
Department of Materials Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran
Department of Materials Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran
AUTHOR
E.
Borhani
true
3
Department of Nano-Technology, Nano-Materials Science and Engineering Group, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Department of Nano-Technology, Nano-Materials Science and Engineering Group, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Department of Nano-Technology, Nano-Materials Science and Engineering Group, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Abdoli H, Asgharzadeh H, Salahi E. Sintering behavior of Al–AlN-nanostructured composite powder synthesized by high-energy ball milling. J Alloy Compd 2009; 473: 116-122.
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2
[3] Sajjadi A, Ezatpour HR, Beygi H. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Al2O3 micro and nano composites fabricated by stir casting. Mater Sci Eng A 2011; 528: 8765-8771.
3
[4] Ezatpour HR, Beygi H, Sajjadi SA, Torabi M. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Al2O3 micro and nano composites fabricated by a novel stir casting rout. 2nd Conferences on Application of nanotechnology in Science, Engineering and Medicine, Mashhad- Iran 2001.
4
[5] Comoro J, Salvador MD, Cambronero LEG. High-temperature mechanical properties of aluminium alloys reinforced with boron carbide particles. Mater Sci Eng 2009; 499: 421-426.
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[6] Han BQ, Agnew SR, Dunand DC. High-strain-rate deformation of pure aluminum reinforced with 25% alumina submicron particles near the solidus temperature. Scripta Mater 1999; 40: 801–8.
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[8] Xiao YL, Li YL, Liang Y, Lu K, Zhou BL. Nanometre sized SiC particulates reinforced Al base composite material. Acta Metall Sin 1996; 6: 658–62. In Chinese.
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[9] Wu GH, Ma SL, Zhao YC, Yang DZ. Microyield deformation characteristic of Particle with Submicron scale reinforced 6061 Al matrix composite. Chinees J Mate Res 1998; 3: 307–10. in Chinese.
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[10] Troadec C, Goeuriot P, Verdieq P, Laurent Y, J. Vicenqc, Boitier G, Chermantc JL. AlN dispersed reinforced aluminum composite. Eur Ceram Soc 1997; 17: 1867-1875.
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[11] Fogagnolo JB, Ruiz-Navas EM, Robert MH, Torralba JM. 6061 Al reinforced with silicon nitride particles processed by mechanical milling. Scripta Mater 2002; 47: 243-248.
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[12] Fogagnolo JB, Robert MH, Ruiz-Navas EM, Torralba JM. 6061 Al reinforced with zirconium diboride particles processed by conventional powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying. Mater Sci 2004; 39: 127-132.
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[13] Benjamin JS. Mechanical Properties of Metallic Composites. Metall Transaction, 1970; 1: 2943-2951.
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[14] Suryanarayana C. Mechanical Alloying and Milling. Prog Mater Sci 2001; 46: 1-184.
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[17] Fogagnolo JB, Kiminami CS, Bolfarini C, Botta Filho WJ. Consolidation of Mechanically Alloyed Aluminium Matrix Composite Powders by Severe Plastic Deformation. JMNM 2003; 307: 15-16.
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[18] Fogagnolo JB, Robert MH, Torralba JM. "Mechanically alloyed AlN particle-reinforced Al-6061 matrix composites: Powder processing, consolidation and mechanical strength and hardness of the as-extruded materials." Mater Sci Eng A 2006; 426: 85-94.
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[19] Wang J, Yi D, Su X, Yin F, Li H. Properties of submicron AlN particulate reinforced aluminum matrix composite. Mater Design 2009; 30: 78–81.
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[20] Abdoli H, Saebnouri E, Sadrnezhaad SK, Ghanbari M, Shahrabi T. Processing and surface properties of Al–AlN composites produced from nanostructured milled powders. J Alloy Compo 2010; 490: 624–630.
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[21] Razavi Hesabi Z, Simchi A, Seyed Reihani SM. Structural evolution during mechanical milling of nanometric and micrometric Al2O3 reinforced Al matrix composites. Mater Sci Eng A 2006; 428: 159-168.
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[22] Simchi H, Kaflou A, Simchi A. Synergetic effect of Ni and Nb2O5 on dehydrogenation properties of nanostructured MgH2 synthesized by high-energy mechanical alloying. Int J Hydrogen Energ 2009; 34: 7724-7730.
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[23] Alizadeh A, Taheri-Nassaj E, Baharvandi HR. Preparation and investigation of Al–4 wt% B4C nanocomposite powders using mechanical milling. Mater Sci 2011; 34: 1039-1048.
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[26] Fathy A, Wagih A, M. Abd El-Hamid, Hassan A. Effect of Mechanical Milling on the Morphology and Structural Evaluation of Al-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Powders. Int J Eng 2014; 27: 625-632.
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[27] VD Mote VD, Purushotham Y, Dole BN. Williamson-Hall analysis in estimation of lattice strain in nanometer-sized ZnO particles. J theor appl phys 2012; 1: 5-11.
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[28] Borhani E. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Heavily Deformed Al-Sc Alloy Having Different Starting Microstructures. PhD thesis, 2012, Kyoto University.
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[29] Abdoli H, Farnoush HR, Asgharzadeh H, Sadrnezhaad SK. Effect of high energy ball milling on compressibility of nanostructured composite powder. Powder Metall 2011; 54: 24-29.
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[30] Razavi Tousi SS, Yazdani Rad R, Salahi E, Mobasherpour I, Razavi M. Production of Al-20 wt.% Al2O3 composite powder using high energy milling. Powder Tech 2009; 192: 46-51.
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[31] Nalwa HS. Nanoclusters and nanocrystals. Am Sci Pub 2003, los Angeles, California.
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32
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Free Vibrations Analysis of Functionally Graded Rectangular Nano-plates based on Nonlocal Exponential Shear Deformation Theory
In the present study the free vibration analysis of the functionally graded rectangular nanoplates is investigated. The nonlocal elasticity theory based on the exponential shear deformation theory has been used to obtain the natural frequencies of the nanoplate. In exponential shear deformation theory an exponential functions are used in terms of thickness coordinate to include the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia. The nonlocal elasticity theory is employed to investigate the effect of the small scale on the natural frequency of the functionally graded rectangular nanoplate. The govering equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived by implementing Hamilton’s principle. To show the accuracy of the formulations, the present results in specific cases are compared with available results in the literature and a good agreement is seen. Finally, the effect of the various parameters such as the nonlocal parameter, the power law indexes, the aspect ratio , and the thickness to lenghth ratio on the natural frequencies of the rectangular FG nanoplates is presented and discussed in detail.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_395_41712910034f3f5b9b6f7403c957aaba.pdf
2015-11-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
79
93
10.22075/macs.2015.395
vibration
Functionally graded nanoplates
Nonlocal elasticity
Exponential shear deformation
theory
Korosh
Khorshidi
k-khorshidi@araku.ac.ir
true
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Tahmoores
Asgari
t_asgari@arshad.araku.ac.ir
true
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
AUTHOR
Abolfazl
Fallah
falah-abolfazl67@gmail.com
true
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak, Iran
AUTHOR
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[6] Pradhan S, Phadikar J. Small scale effect on vibration of embedded multilayered graphene sheets based on nonlocal continuum models. Phys Lett A 2009; 373: 1062-1069.
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[28] Ungbhakorn V, Wattanasakulpong N. Thermo-elastic vibration analysis of third-order shear deformable functionally graded plates with distributed patch mass under thermal environment. Appl Acoust 2013; 74: 1045-1059.
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[29] Kumar Y, Lal R. Prediction of frequencies of free axisymmetric vibration of two-directional functionally graded annular plates on Winkler foundation. Eur J Mech A Solid 2013; 42: 219-228.
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53
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Free Vibration Analysis of 2D Functionally Graded Annular Plate considering the Effect of Material Composition via 2D Differential Quadrature Method
This study investigates the free vibration of the Two-Dimensional Functionally Graded Annular Plates (2D-FGAP). The theoretical formulations are based on the three-dimensional elasticity theory with small strain assumption. The Two-Dimensional Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (2D-GDQM) as an efficient and accurate semi-analytical approach is used to discretize the equations of motion and to implement the various boundary conditions. The fast rate of convergence for this method is shown and the results are compared with the existing results in the literature. The material properties are assumed to be continuously changing along thickness and radial directions simultaneously, which can be varied according to the power law and exponential distributions, respectively. The effects of the geometrical parameters, the material graded indices in thickness and radial directions, and the mechanical boundary conditions on the frequency parameters of the two-dimensional functionally graded annular plates are evaluated in detail. The results are verified to be against those given in the literature.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_396_8c304df1da43a8c684ea391255c2d56e.pdf
2015-11-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
95
111
10.22075/macs.2015.396
Functionally graded material
Generalized differential quadrature
Free Vibration
Annular plate
Mohammad
Nejati
true
1
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
AUTHOR
Hamid
Mohsenimonfared
h-mohsenimonfared@iau-arak.ac.ir
true
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Ali
Asanjarani
true
3
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
AUTHOR
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[21] Nie GJ, Zhong Z. Semi analytical solution for three-dimensional vibration of functionally graded circular plates, Comput. Methods Appl Mech Eng 2007; 196(49-52): 4901–4910.
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[22] Dong CY. Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of functionally graded annular plates using the Chebyshev–Ritz method, Mater Des 2008; 29(8): 1518–1525.
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[23] Tahouneh V, Yas MH. 3-D Free vibration analysis of thick functionally graded annular plates on Pasternak elastic foundation via differential quadrature method (DQM), Acta Mech 2012; 223(9): 1879-1897.
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[24] Hosseini-Hashemi S, Fadaee M, Atashipour SR. A new exact analytical approach for free vibration of Reissner-Mindlin functionally graded rectangular plates, Int J Mech Sci 2011; 53(1): 11–22.
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[25] Jodaei A, Jalal M, Yas MH. Free vibration analysis of functionally graded annular plates by state-space based differential quadrature method and comparative modeling by ANN, Compos Part B 2012; 43(2): 340–353.
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[26] Malekzadeh P, Shahpari SA, Ziaee HR. Three-dimensional free vibration of thick functionally graded annular plates in thermal environment. J Sound Vib 2010; 329(4): 425–42.
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[27] Rad AB, Shariyat M. A three-dimensional elasticity solution for two-directional FGM annular plates with non-uniform elastic foundations subjected to normal and shear tractions, Acta Mech Solida Sinica 2013; 26(6): 671–90.
27
[28] Malekzadeh P, Safaeian Hamzehkolaei N. A 3D discrete layer-differential quadrature free vibration of multi-layered FG annular plates in thermal environment, Mech Adv Mater Struct 2013; 20(4):316-30.
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[29] Liang X, Kou H, Wang L, Palmer AC, Wang Z, Liu G. Three-dimensional transient analysis of functionally graded material annular sector plate under various boundary conditions. Compos Struct 2015; 132(15): 584–596.
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30
[31] Asgari M, Akhlaghi M. Natural frequency analysis of 2D-FGM thick hollow cylinder based on three-dimensional elasticity equations, Eur J Mech A/Solids 2011; 30(2):72–81.
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[35] Zhou D, Au FTK, Cheung YK, Lo SH. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of circular and annular plates via the Chebyshev-Ritz method, Int J Solid Struct 2003; 40(12): 3089–3105.
35
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Nonlocal Buckling and Vibration Analysis of Triple-Walled ZnO Piezoelectric Timoshenko Nano-beam Subjected to Magneto-Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Loadings
In this study, using the non-local elasticity theory, the buckling and vibration analysis of triple- walled ZnO piezoelectric Timoshenko beam on elastic Pasternak foundation is analytically investigated under magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical loadings. Using the Timoshenko beam free body diagram, the equilibrium equation of Timoshenko nano-beam model is obtained and solved by Navier’s method for a simply-supported nano-beam. The surrounding elastic mediums are simulated by Winkler and Pasternak models and interlayer forces are considered by Lenard-Jones potential. The effects of various parameters including the elastic medium, small scale, length, thickness, van der Waals force on the critical buckling load and non-dimensional natural frequency of triple- walled ZnO nano-beam are investigated. The results of this study show that the critical buckling load reduces with increasing the temperature change, direct electric field, magnetic field, and length of nanotube, and vice versa for the thickness of nanotubes, and two parameters elastic foundations. Also, the non-local critical buckling load and non-dimensional natural frequency of Timoshenko nano-beam are smaller than the local critical buckling load and non-dimensional natural frequency. The results can be useful for designing the smart nano-beam for MEMS and NEMS.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_397_0d56f9cf990bae14100db906823e345c.pdf
2015-11-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
113
126
10.22075/macs.2015.397
Non-local buckling and vibration analysis
Triple-walled ZnO piezoelectric
Timoshenko nano-beam
Elastic foundation
Magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical loadings
Mehdi
Mohammadimehr
mmohammadimehr@kashanu.ac.ir
true
1
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Seyyed Amir Mohammad
Managheb
s.am_managheb@yahoo.com
true
2
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
AUTHOR
Sajad
Alimirzaei
salimirzaie69@gmail.com
true
3
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Eringen AC, on differential equations of nonlocal elasticity and solutions of screw dislocation and surface waves. J Appl Phys 1983; 54: 4703-4710.
1
[2] Ying Chen, Piezoelectricity in ZnO-Based multilayer structures for applications, New Brunswick, New Jersey May, 2008; Dissertation Director: Professor Yicheng Lu.
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[3] Narendar S, Gupta SS, Gopalakrishnan S, Wave propagation in single-walled carbon nanotube under longitudinal magnetic field using nonlocal Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. Appl Math Modell 2012; 36: 4529–4538.
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[4] Kiani K, Magneto-thermo-elastic fields caused by an unsteady longitudinal magnetic field in a conducting nanowire accounting for eddy-current loss Materials. Chemis Phys 2012; 136: 589–598.
4
[5] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Abdollahian M, Kolahchi R, Rahmati AH, Electro-thermo- torsional buckling of an embedded armchair DWBNNT using nonlocal shear deformable shell model. Compos Part B: Eng 2013; 51: 291–299.
5
[6] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Rahnama Mobarakeh M, Shams Sh, Mohammadimehr M, The effect of CNT volume fraction on the magneto-thermo-electro-mechanical behavior of smart nanocomposite cylinder. J Mech Sci Tech 2012; 26(8): 2565–2572.
6
[7] Kong T, Li DX, Wanga X, Thermo-magneto-dynamic stresses and perturbation of magnetic fieldvector in a non-homogeneous hollow cylinder. Appl Math Modell 2009; 33: 2939–2950.
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[8] Murmu1 T, Adhikari S, McCarthy MA, Axial vibration of embedded nanorods under transverse magnetic field effects via nonlocal elastic continuum theory. J Comput Theor Nanos 2014; 11: 1–7.
8
[9] Wang Yi-Ze, Li FM, Nonlinear primary resonance of nano beam with axial initial load by nonlocal continuum theory. Int J Non-Linear Mech 2014; 61: 74–79.
9
[10] Mohammadimehr M, Rahmati AH, Small scale effect on electro-thermo-mechanical vibration analysis of single-walled boron nitride nanorods under electric excitation. Turkis J Env Sci 2014; 37: 1–15.
10
[11] Zhang J, Wang R, Wang C, Pezoelectric ZnO-CNT nanotubes under axial strain and electrical voltage. Physica E 2012; 46: 105–112.
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[12] Akbari Alashti R, Khorsand M, Tarahhomi MH, Thermo-elastic analysis of a functionally graded spherical shell with piezoelectric layers by differential quadrature method. Scientia Iranica 2013; 20 (1):109–119.
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[13] Jomehzade E, Afshar MK, Galiotis C, Shi X, Pugno NM, Nonlinear softening and hardening nonlocal bending stiffness of an initially curved monolayer grapheme. Int J Non-Linear Mech 2013; 56: 123–131.
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[14] Lei Y, Adhikari S, Murmu T, Friswell MI, Asymptotic frequencies of various damped nonlocal beams and plates. Mech Res Commun 2014; 62: 94–101.
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[15] Mohammadimehr M, Rousta Navi B, Ghorbanpour Arani A, Biaxial buckling and bending of smart nanocomposite plate reinforced by carbon nanotube under electro-magneto-mechanical loadings based on the extended mixture rule approach. Mech Advan Compos Struct 2014; 1: 17–26.
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[16] Ansari R, Gholami R, Sahmani S, Free vibration of size-dependent functionally graded microbeams based on the strain gradient Reddy beam theory. Int J Comput Meth Eng Sci Mech 2014; 15:401–412.
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[17] Najar F, El-Borgi S, Reddy JN, Mrabet K, Nonlinear nonlocal analysis of electrostatic nanoactuators. Compos Struct 2015; 120:117–128.
17
[18] Reddy JN, El-Borgi S, Eringen’s nonlocal theories of beams accounting for moderate rotations. Int J Eng Sci 2014; 82: 159–177.
18
[19] Adhikari S, Gilchrist D, Murmu T, McCarthy MA, Nonlocal normal modes in nanoscale dynamical systems. Mech Syst Signal Pr 2015; 60: 583–603.
19
[20] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Fereidoon A, Kolahchi R, Nonlocal DQM for a nonlinear buckling analysis of DLGSs integrated with Zno piezoelectric layers. J Appl Mech 2014; 45(1): 9-22.
20
[21] Ansari R, Faghih Shojaei M, Gholami R, Mohammadi V, Darabi MA, Thermal postbuckling behavior of size-dependent functionally graded Timoshenko microbeams. Int J Non-Linear Mech 2013; 50: 127–135.
21
[22] Karlicic D, Murmu T, Cajic M, KozicP, Adhikari S, Dynamics of multiple viscoelastic carbon nanotube based nanocomposites with axial magnetic field. J Appl Phys 2014; 115: 234–303.
22
[23] Yu R, Pan C, Chen J, Zhu G, Wang ZL, Enhanced Performance of a ZnO Nanowire-Based Self-Powered Glucose Sensor by Piezotronic Effect. Advan Func Mater, 2013; doi:10.1002/adfm.201300593/j.adv.funct.mat.2013.
23
[24] Liew KM, Lei ZX, Yu JL, Zhang LW, Postbuckling of carbon nanotube-reinforced functionally graded cylindrical panels under axial compression using a meshless approach. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2014; 268: 1–17.
24
[25] Mohammadimehr M, Rousta Navi B, Ghorbanpour Arani A, The free vibration of viscoelastic double-bonded polymeric nanocomposite plates reinforced by FG-SWCNTs using modified strain gradient theory (MSGT) sinusoidal shear deformation theory and meshless method. Compos Struct 2015; 131: 654–671.
25
[26] Mohammadimehr M, Mohandes M, Moradi M, Size dependent effect on the buckling and vibration analysis of double-bonded nanocomposite piezoelectric plate reinforced by boron nitride nanotube based on modified couple stress theory. J Vib Control; doi:10.1177/1077546314544513/j.vib.cont. 2014.
26
[27] Eltaher MA, Abdelrahman AA, Al-Nabawy A, Khater M, Mansour A, Vibration of nonlinear graduation of nano-Timoshenko beam considering the neutral axis position. Appl Math Comput 2014; 235: 512–529.
27
[28] Le Grognec P, Nguyen Q, Hjiaj M, Exact buckling solution for two-layer Timoshenko beams with interlayerslip. Int J Solids Struct, 2012; 49: 143–150.
28
[29] Aydogdu M, Longitudinal wave propagation in multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Compos Struct 2014; 107: 578–584.
29
[30] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Kolahchi R, Zarei ShM, Visco-surface-nonlocal piezoelasticity effects on nonlinear dynamic stability of graphene sheets integrated with ZnO sensors and actuators using refined zigzag theory. Compos Struct 2015; 132: 506–526.
30
[31] Ghannadpour SAM, Mohammadi B, Fazilati J, Bending, buckling and vibration problems of nonlocal Euler beams using Ritz method. Compos Struct 2013; 96: 584–589.
31
[32] Wang ChY, Adhikari S, ZnO-CNT composite nanotubes as nanoresonators. Phys Lett A 2011; 375: 2171–2175.
32
[33] Rahmati AH, Mohammadimehr M, Vibration analysis of non-uniform and non-homogeneous boron nitride nanorods embedded in an elastic medium under combined loadings using DQM. Physica B 2014; 440: 88–98.
33
[34] Yas MH, Samadi N, Free vibrations and buckling analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite Timoshenko beams on elastic foundation. Int J Pres Ves Pip 2012; 98: 119–128.
34
[35] Rao SS, Mechanical Vibration: Theory and Analysis, Prentice Hall, 2011.
35
[36] Wang CM, Tan VBC, Zhang YY, Timoshenko beam model for vibration analysis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Sound Vib 2012; 294:1060–1072.
36
[37] Mohammadimehr M, Saidi AR, Ghorbanpour Arani A, Arefmanesh A, Han Q, Buckling analysis of double-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium under axial compression using non-local Timoshenko beam theory. J Mech Eng Sci 2011; 225: 498–506.
37
[38] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Hashemian M, Kolahchi R, Time discretization effect on the nonlinear vibration of embedded SWBNNT conveying viscous fluid. Compos: Part B 2013; 54: 298–306.
38
[39] Wu CP, Lai ww. Free vibration of an embedded single-walled carbon nanotube with various boundary conditions using the RMVT-based nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory and DQ method. Physica E 2015; 68: 8–21.
39
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Damage Energy Evaluation in [55/-55]9 Composite Pipes using Acoustic Emission Method
In this study, the longitudinal and hoop tensile strengths of an industrial ±55° Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe with eighteen layers as well as the associated failure mechanisms are determined. To obtain the longitudinal and hoop tensile strengths values, three specimens are cut from the studied GRE pipe in each direction. A comparison is done between both the strength values, and the fracture pattern of the specimens is studied. Determining the different failure mechanisms which are created during both of the tests, the acoustic emission technique is used. The acoustic emission energy as an important damage parameter in determining the different failure mechanisms of the specimens is depicted for both of the tests and is related to the obtained results from the stress-time curve. A high magnification camera is used to verify the failure mechanisms characterized by the acoustic emission method.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_398_64d703079b275881135710385ae1e1df.pdf
2015-11-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
127
134
10.22075/macs.2015.398
GRE composite pipe
Longitudinal strength
Hoop strength
Acoustic emission
Failure mechanisms
Hamid Reza
Mahdavi
true
1
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Gholam Hosein
Rahimi
rahimi_gh@modares.ac.ir
true
2
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Amin
Farrokhabadi
amin-farrokh@modares.ac.ir
true
3
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of MechanicalEengineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Hossein
Saadatmand
saadatmand_h@nigc-boushehr.ir
true
4
Department of Engineering Design, National Iranian Gas Company, Boushehr, Iran
Department of Engineering Design, National Iranian Gas Company, Boushehr, Iran
Department of Engineering Design, National Iranian Gas Company, Boushehr, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Cohen D. Influence of filament winding parameters on composite vessel quality and strength. Compos Part A 1997; 28: 1035-1047.
1
[2] Cohen D, Mantell SC, Zhao L. The effect of fiber volume fraction on filament wound composite pressure vessel strength. Compos Part B 2001; 32: 413-429.
2
[3] Xia M, Takayanagi H, Kemmochi K. Analysis of multi-layered filament-wound composite pipes under internal pressure. Compos Struct 2001; 53: 483-491.
3
[4] Hwang TK, Hong CS, Kim CG. Size effect on the fiber strength of composite pressure vessels. Compos Struct 2003; 59: 489-498.
4
[5] Baranger E, Allix O, Blanchard L. A computational strategy for the analysis of damage in composite pipes. Compos Sci Technol 2009; 69: 88-92.
5
[6] Melo JDZ, Neto FL, de Araujo Barros G, de Almeida Mesquita FN. Mechanical behavior of GRP pressure pipes with addition of quartz sand filler. J Compos Mater 2010; 45(6): 717-726.
6
[7] Rafiee R. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the failure of filament wound GRP pipes. Compos Part B 2013; 45: 257-267.
7
[8] Prosser WH. Acoustic emission, In Shull PJ (Ed) Nondestructive Evaluation, theory, techniques and applications. Taylor and Francis, 2002.
8
[9] Curtis GJ. Acoustic emission energy relates to bond strength. Nondestr Test Eval 1975: 249-257.
9
[10] Groot PJ, Wijnen PAM, Janssen RBF. Real-time frequency determination of acoustic emission for different fracture mechanisms in carbon/epoxy composites. Compos Sci Technol 1995; 55: 405-412.
10
[11] Yu YH, Choi JH, Kweon JH, Kim DH. A study on the failure detection of composite materials using an acoustic emission. Compos Struct 2006; 75: 163-169.
11
[12] Bourchak M, Farrow IR, Bond IP, Rowland CW, Menan F. Acoustic emission energy as a fatigue damage parameter for CFRP composites. Int J Fatigue 2007; 29: 457-470.
12
[13] Bussiba A, Kupiec M, Ifergane S, Piat R, Bohlke T. Damage evolution and fracture events sequence in various composites by acoustic emission technique. Compos Sci Technol 2008; 68: 1144-1155.
13
[14] De Rosa LM, Santulli C, Sarasini F. Acoustic emission for monitoring the mechanical behavior of natural fibre composites: A literature review. Compos Part A 2010; 40: 1456-1469.
14
[15] Liu PF, Chu JK, Liu YL, Zheng JY. A study on the failure mechanisms of carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminates using acoustic emission. Mater Des 2012; 37: 228-235.
15
[16] Aggelis DG, Barkoula NM, Matikas TE, Paipetis AS. Acoustic structural health monitoring of composite materials: Damage identification and evaluation in cross ply laminates using acoustic emission and ultrasonics. Compos Sci Technol 2012; 72: 1127-1133.
16
[17] Zarif Karimi N, Heidary H, Ahmadi M, Rahimi A. M. Farajpur. Monitoring of residual tensile strength in drilled composite laminates by acoustic emission. Modares Mech Eng 2013; 13(15): 169-183 (in Persian).
17
[18] Belalpour dastjerdi P, Fotouhi M, Fotouhi S, Ahmadi M. Acoustic emission based study to investigate the initiation and growth of delamination in composite materials. Modares Mech Eng 2014; 14(3): 78-84 (in Persian).
18
[19] Saeedifar M, Fotouhi M, Mohammadi R, Hajikhani M, Ahmadinajafabadi M. Classification of damage mechanisms during delamination growth in sandwich composites byacoustic emission. Modares Mech Eng 2014; 14(6): 144-152 (in Persian).
19
[20] Ben Ammar I, Karra C, El Mahi A, El Guerjouma R, Haddar M. Mechanical behavior and acoustic emission technique for detecting damage in sandwich structures. Appl Acoust 2014; 86: 106-117.
20
[21] Zarif Karimi N, Minak G, Kianfar P. Analysis of damage mechanisms in drilling of composite materials by acoustic emission. Compos Struct 2015; 131: 107-114.
21
[22] Standard Test Method for tensile properties of polymer matrix composite materials. Annual Book of ASTM Standard. D 3039-00; 2000.
22
[23] Standard Test Method for Apparent Hoop Tensile Strength of Plastic or Reinforced Plastic Pipe by Split Disk Method. Annual Book of ASTM Standard. D 2290-04; 2004.
23
[24] Standard Test Method for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins. Annual Book of ASTM Standard. D 2584-02; 2002.
24
[25] Behroozi H. National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), Boushehr, Iran, 2015.
25
[26] Non-destructive testing -Acoustic emission- Equipment characterization- Part 2: Verification of operating characteristic. BSI Standards Publication. BS EN 13477-2; 2010.
26
[27] Vidya Sagar R. An experimental Study on Acoustic Emission Energy and Fracture Energy of Concrete. Proc National Semin Exhibition on Non-Destr Eval 2009: 10-12.
27
[28] Non-destructive testing- Terminology- Part 9: Terms used in acoustic emission testing. Brithish Standard. BS EN 1330-9; 2009.
28
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Buckling Analysis of Spherical Composite Panels Reinforced by Carbon Nanotube
In this study, the buckling behavior of moderately thick Carbon Nano-Tube (CNT)-reinforced spherical composite panels subjected to both uniaxial and biaxial loads is examined. The uniform and various kinds of functionally graded distributions of the CNT are considered. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite panels are estimated using the modified rule of mixture. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the von Karman-type of kinematic nonlinearity, the governing differential equations are derived and the solutions are determined using Galerkin’s method. The suggested model is justified by a good agreement between the present results and those reportedin the literature. The numerical results are performed to elucidate the influences of volume fraction, aspect ratio, thickness ratio and side-to-radius ratio on the critical buckling loads of the spherical nanocomposite panels. One of the main contributions of the current study is to investigate the effectiveness of functionally graded distributions.The effectiveness of functionally graded distributions with respect to various parameters are also investigated.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_399_c9199b1dd23ffd061499d4d0552fc806.pdf
2015-11-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
135
144
10.22075/macs.2015.399
Buckling
Carbon nanotube-reinforced
Nanocomposite
Spherical panel
Saleh
Pouresmaeeli
pouresmaeeli@gmail.com
true
1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
AUTHOR
S. Ahmad
Fazelzadeh
fazelzad@shirazu.ac.ir
true
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Esmaeal
Ghavanloo
ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir
true
3
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Iijima S. Helical Microtubules of Graphitic Carbon. Nature 1991; 354: 56–58.
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[2] Cadek M, Coleman JN, Barron V, Hedicke K, Blau WJ. Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Carbon-Nanotube-Reinforced Semicrystalline and Amorphous Polymer Composites. Appl Phys Lett 2002; 81: 5123–5125.
2
[3] ThostensonET, ChouTW. On The Elastic Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Based Composites: Modelling and Characterization. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2003; 36: 573–582.
3
[4] LauKT, GuC, GaoGH, LingHY, ReidSR. Stretching Process of Single and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Nanocomposite Applications. Carbon 2004; 42: 426–428.
4
[5] Coleman JN, Khan U, Blau WJ, Gunko YK. Small but Strong: A Review of the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites. Carbon 2006; 44: 1624–1652.
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[6] Qian D, Dickey EC, Andrews R, Rantell T. Load Transfer and Deformation Mechanisms in Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene Composites. Appl Phys Lett 2000; 76: 2868–2870.
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[7] Ruan SL, Gao P, Yang XG, Yu TX. Toughening High Performance Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes. Polymer 2003; 44: 5643–5654.
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[8] Rafiee R, FirouzbakhtV.Predicting Young’s Modulus of Aggregated Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymer, Mech Adv Compos Struct 2014; 1: 9–16.
8
[9] Mohammadimehr M, Rousta-Navi B, Ghorbanpour-Arani A.Biaxial Buckling and Bending of Smart Nanocomposite Plate Reinforced by CNTs Using Extended Mixture Rule Approach. Mech Adv Compos Struct 2014; 1: 17–26.
9
[10] Alibeigloo A. Elasticity Solution of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composite CylindricalPanel. Mech Adv Compos Struct 2014; 1: 49–60.
10
[11] Tahouneh V, Eskandari-Jam J. A Semi-analytical Solution for 3-D Dynamic Analysis of Thick Continuously Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Annular Plates Resting on a Two-Parameter Elastic Foundation. Mech Adv Compos Struct 2014; 1: 113–130.
11
[12] ShenHS. Postbuckling of Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells in Thermal Environments, Part I: Axially-Loaded Shells. Compos Struct 2011; 93: 2096–2108.
12
[13] ShenHS.Postbuckling of Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells in Thermal Environments, Part II: Pressure-Loaded Shells. Compos Struct 2011; 93: 2496–503.
13
[14] ShenHS.Thermal Buckling and Postbuckling Behavior of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells. Compos Part B-Eng 2012; 43: 1030–1038.
14
[15] Shen HS, Xiang Y.Postbuckling of Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Combined Axial and Radial Mechanical Loads in Thermal Environment, Compos Part B-Eng 2013; 52: 311–322.
15
[16] Liew KM, Lei ZX, Yu JL, Zhang LW. Postbuckling of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Functionally Graded Cylindrical Panels under Axial Compression Using a Meshless Approach. Comput Method Appl 2014; 268: 1–17.
16
[17] Shen HS. Torsional Postbuckling of Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells in Thermal Environments. Compos Struct 2014; 116: 477–488.
17
[18] Shen HS, Xiang Y. Postbuckling of Axially Compressed Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Panels Resting on Elastic Foundations in Thermal Environments. Compos Part B-Eng 2014; 67: 50–61.
18
[19] JamJE, KianiY.Buckling of Pressurized Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Conical Shells. Compos Struct 2015; 125: 586–595.
19
[20] RabaniBidgoli M, Karimi MS, GhorbanpourArani A. Nonlinear Vibration and Instability Analysis of Functionally Graded CNT-Reinforced Cylindrical Shells Conveying Viscous Fluid Resting on Orthotropic Pasternak Medium. Mech Adv Mater Struct 2016; 23: 819–831.
20
[21] Mohammadimehr M, RoustaNavi B, GhorbanpourArani A. Free Vibration of Viscoelastic Double-Bonded Polymeric Nanocomposite Plates Reinforced by FG-Swcnts Using MSGT, Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Theory and Meshless Method. Compos Struct 2015; 131: 654–671.
21
[22] Mohammadimehr M, RoustaNavi B, GhorbanpourArani A. Modified Strain Gradient Reddy Rectangular Plate Model for Biaxial Buckling and Bending Analysis of Double-Coupled Piezoelectric Polymeric Nanocomposite Reinforced by FG-SWNT. Compos Part B-Eng 2016; 87: 132–148.
22
[23] Mohammadimehr M, Salemi M, RoustaNavi B. Bending, Buckling, and Free Vibration Analysis of MSGT Microcomposite Reddy Plate Reinforced by FG-Swcntswith Temperature-Dependent Material Properties under Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Loadings Using DQM. Compos Struct 2016; 138: 361–380.
23
[24] Ghorbanpour Arani A, Jamali M, Mosayyebi M, Kolahchi R. Analytical Modeling of Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Piezoelectric Microplate under Electro-Magnetic Field. Mech Eng J Nano-Eng Nano-Sys, Doi: 1740349915614046.
24
[25] Shen HS. Nonlinear Bending of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Plates in Thermal Environments. Compos Struct 2009; 91: 9–19.
25
[26] Fazelzadeh SA, Pouresmaeeli S, Ghavanloo E. Aeroelastic Characteristics of Functionally Graded CarbonNanotube-Reinforced Composite Plates undera Supersonic Flow. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2015; 285: 714–729.
26
[27] Lei ZX, Liew KM, Yu JL. Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Plates Using the Element-Free Kp-Ritz Method. Compos Struct 2013; 98: 160–168.
27
[28] AmabiliM. Nonlinear vibrations and stability of shells and plates. Cambridge University Press; 2008.
28
[29] Kiani Y, Akbarzadeh AH, Chen ZT, Eslami MR. Static and Dynamic Analysis of an FGM Doubly Curved Panel Resting on the Pasternak-Type Elastic Foundation. Compos Struct 2012; 94: 2474–2484.
29
[30] MatsunagaH. Free Vibration and Stability of Functionally Graded Shallow Shells According to a2D Higher-Order Deformation Theory. Compos Struct 2008; 84: 132–146.
30
[31] Zhang LW, Lei ZX, Liew KM. An Element-Free IMLS-Ritz Framework for Buckling Analysis of FG-CNT Reinforced Composite Thick Plates Resting on Winkler Foundations. Eng Anal Bound Elem 2015; 58: 7–17.
31
[32] Matsunaga H. Vibration and Stability of Thick Simply Supported Shallow Shells Subjected to In-Plane Stresses. J Sound Vib 1999; 225: 41–60.
32
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Dynamic Stability of Moderately Thick Composite Laminated Skew Plates using Finite Strip Method
The dynamic instability regions of composite laminated skew flat plates subjected to uniform in-plane axial end-loading are investigated. The in-plane loading is assumed as a combination of a time-invariant component and a harmonic time-varying component uniformly distributed along two opposite panel ends’ width. In case of some loading frequency-amplitude pair-conditions, the model is subjected to instabilities. The dynamic instability margins of the skewed flat panel have been extracted using a developed semi-analytical finite strip formulation. The method has been developed based on a full-energy approach through the principle of the virtual work. The effects of thickness have been included by utilizing a third-order Reddy type shear deformation theory. The effects of boundary conditions as well as geometry on the instability load-frequency regions are derived using the Bolotin's first-order approximation. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed method in predicting the structural dynamic behavior, some representative results are obtained and compared with those in the literature wherever available.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_400_d069242c32c681d1c9dd05f65b277d85.pdf
2015-11-01T11:23:20
2018-12-12T11:23:20
145
150
10.22075/macs.2015.400
Parametric instability
Finite strip method
Skew plate
Third order shear deformation theory
Jamshid
Fazilati
jfazilati@ari.ac.ir
true
1
Aerospace Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
Aerospace Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
Aerospace Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
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[2] Hu HT, Tzeng WL. Buckling Analysis of Skew Laminate Plates Subjected to Uniaxial Inplane Loads. Thin-Walled Struct 2000; 38: 53–77.
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[3] Dey P, Singha MK. Dynamic Stability Analysis of Composite Skew Plates Subjected to Periodic In-Plane Load. Thin-Walled Struct 2006; 44: 937–942.
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[4] Lee SY. Finite element dynamic stability analysis of laminated composite skew plates containing cutouts based on HSDT. Comp Sci Technol 2010; 70: 1249–1257.
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[5] Tahmasebinejad A, Shanmugam NE. Elastic Buckling of Uniaxially Loaded Skew Plates Containing Openings. Thin-Walled Struc 2011; 49: 1208–1216.
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[6] Noh MH, Lee SY. Dynamic Instability of Delaminated Composite Skew Plates Subjected to Combined Static and Dynamic Loads Based on HSDT. Compos Part B 2014; 58: 113–121.
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[7] Singha MK, Daripa R. Nonlinear Vibration of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Skew Plates by Finite Element Method. Int J Non-Linear Mech 2007; 42: 1144–1152.
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[8] Wang S. Free Vibration Analysis of Skew Fibre-Reinforced Composite Laminates Based on First-Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory. Comput Struct 1997; 63: 525–538.
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