ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Dynamic Characteristics of Joined Steel and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Tubes: Experimental and Numerical Investigation
The fundamental frequencies and mode shapes of steel and carbon fiber–reinforced plastic (CFRP) cylindrical shells with steel inserts were investigated using finite element analysis and modal testing. The free-free boundary condition was tested with modal testing using the roving hammer method and verified by finite element analysis using ABAQUS. The results show good agreement between the testing and finite element analysis in both natural frequencies and mode shapes. Then, the vibrational behavior of cylindrical shells with steel/CFRP lap joints for simply supported-free and clamped-free edge conditions was studied using the verified finite element modeling, and the effects of lengths and thicknesses of composite cylinders and steel inserts on the free vibration of joined steel/CFRP were investigated. The results show that the vibrational behavior of the CFRP shell and its dimensions has a major influence on natural frequencies and mode shapes of the joined shells.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2277_efa807eb9df6ea2fefc992017d15e33d.pdf
2017-11-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
88
97
10.22075/macs.2017.1526.1069
Cylindrical shell
Steel/composite joined tubes
Free Vibration
Natural Frequency
Mode shape
M.
Shakouri
meisam.shakouri@gmail.com
true
1
Semnan University
Semnan University
Semnan University
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Daniali
masouddaniali@gmail.com
true
2
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
AUTHOR
H. M.
Navazi
navazi@sharif.edu
true
3
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
AUTHOR
M. A.
Kouchakzadeh
mak@sharif.edu
true
4
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1] Nguyen T-C, Bai Y, Zhao X-L, Al-Mahaidi R. Effects of ultraviolet radiation and associated elevated temperature on mechanical performance of steel/CFRP double strap joints. Compos Struct. 2012;94(12):3563-73.
1
[2] Speth DR, Yang YP, Ritter GW. Qualification of adhesives for marine composite-to-steel applications. Int J Adhes Adhes. 2010;30(2):55-62.
2
[3] Adams RD, Comyn J, Wake WC. Structural Adhesive Joints in Engineering: Springer; 1997.
3
[4] Zhao X-L, Zhang L. State-of-the-art review on FRP strengthened steel structures. Eng Struct. 2007;29(8):1808-23.
4
[5] Zhang Y, Vassilopoulos AP, Keller T. Effects of low and high temperatures on tensile behavior of adhesively-bonded GFRP joints. Compos Struct. 2010;92(7):1631-9.
5
[6] Nguyen T-C, Bai Y, Zhao X-L, Al-Mahaidi R. Mechanical characterization of steel/CFRP double strap joints at elevated temperatures. Compos Struct. 2011;93(6):1604-12.
6
[7] Nguyen T-C, Bai Y, Zhao X-L, Al-Mahaidi R. Durability of steel/CFRP double strap joints exposed to sea water, cyclic temperature and humidity. Compos Struct. 2012;94(5):1834-45.
7
[8] Keller T, Tracy C, Zhou A. Structural response of liquid-cooled GFRP slabs subjected to fire – Part II: Thermo-chemical and thermo-mechanical modeling. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2006;37(9):1296-308.
8
[9] Liu H, Xiao Z, Zhao X-L, Al-Mahaidi R. Prediction of fatigue life for CFRP-strengthened steel plates. Thin Walled Struct. 2009;47(10):1069-77.
9
[10] Zhang Y, Vassilopoulos AP, Keller T. Mixed-mode fracture of adhesively-bonded pultruded composite lap joints. Eng Fract Mech. 2010;77(14):2712-26.
10
[11] Yang J, Du S. An exploratory study into the fatigue of composites under spectrum loading. J Compos Mater. 1983;17(6):511-26.
11
[12] Yeh MK, You YL. Vibration of laminated plates with adhesive joints. Compos Eng. 1995;5(8):983-93.
12
[13] Ko TC, Lin CC, Chu RC. Vibration of bonded laminated lap-joint plates using adhesive interface elements. J Sound Vib. 1995;184(4):567-83.
13
[14] Botelho EC, Campos AN, de Barros E, Pardini LC, Rezende MC. Damping behavior of continuous fiber/metal composite materials by the free vibration method. Composites Part B. 2005;37(2–3):255-63.
14
[15] Yuceoglu U, ÖZERCIYES V. Free vibrations of bonded single lap joints in composite, shallow cylindrical shell panels. AIAA J. 2005;43(12):2537-48.
15
[16] Shu C, Du H. Free vibration analysis of laminated composite cylindrical shells by DQM. Composites Part B. 1997;28(3):267-74.
16
[17] Liu B, Xing YF, Qatu MS, Ferreira AJM. Exact characteristic equations for free vibrations of thin orthotropic circular cylindrical shells. Compos Struct. 2012;94(2):484-93.
17
[18] Jafari AA, Bagheri M. Free vibration of non-uniformly ring stiffened cylindrical shells using analytical, experimental and numerical methods. Thin Walled Struct. 2006;44(1):82-90.
18
[19] Civalek O. Numerical analysis of free vibrations of laminated composite conical and cylindrical shells: Discrete singular convolution (DSC) approach. J Comput Appl Math. 2007;205(1):251-71.
19
[20] Chen W-q, Ding H-j, Xu R-q. On exact analysis of free vibrations of embedded transversely isotropic cylindrical shells. Int J Press Vessels Pip. 1998;75(13):961-6.
20
[21] Agarwal A, Foster SJ, Hamed E. Wet thermo-mechanical behavior of steel–CFRP joints–An experimental study. Composites Part B. 2015;83:284-96.
21
[22] Agarwal A, Foster SJ, Hamed E. Testing of new adhesive and CFRP laminate for steel-CFRP joints under sustained loading and temperature cycles. Composites Part B. 2016;99:235-47.
22
[23] Kouchakzadeh MA, Shakouri M. Free vibration analysis of joined cross-ply laminated conical shells. Int J Mech Sci. 2014;78:118-25.
23
[24] Colombi P, Fava G. Fatigue behaviour of tensile steel/CFRP joints. Compos Struct. 2012;94(8):2407-17.
24
[25] Al-Mosawe A, Kalfat R, Al-Mahaidi R. Strength of Cfrp-steel double strap joints under impact loads using genetic programming. Compos Struct. 2016.
25
[26] Davis JR, Committee AIH. Metals Handbook Desk Edition 2nd Edition: Taylor & Francis; 1998.
26
[27] Herakovich CT. Mechanics of Fibrous Composites: Wiley; 1997.
27
[28] Ewins DJ. Modal testing: theory, practice, and application: Research Studies Press; 2000.
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[29] Peeters B, Van der Auweraer H, Guillaume P, Leuridan J. The PolyMAX frequency-domain method: a new standard for modal parameter estimation? Shock and Vibration. 2004;11(3-4):395-409.
29
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Vibration Optimization of Fiber-Metal Laminated Composite Shallow Shell Panels Using an Adaptive PSO Algorithm
The paper illustrates the application of a combined adaptive particle swarm optimization (A-PSO) algorithm and the ﬁnite strip method (FSM) to the lay-up optimization of symmetrically fiber-metal laminated (FML) composite shallow shell panels for maximizing the fundamental frequency. To improve the speed of the optimization process, adaptive inertia weight was used in the particle swarm optimization algorithm to modify the search process. The use of the inertia weight provided a balance between global and local exploration and exploitation and resulted in fewer iterations on average to find an optimal solution. The fitness function was computed with a semi-analytical FSM. The number of layers, the fiber orientation angles, edge conditions, length/width (a/b) ratios, and length/radii of curvature (a/R) ratios were considered as design variables. The classical shallow shell theory (Donnell’s formulation) was applied to calculate the natural frequencies of FML cylindrical curved panels. A program using Maple software was developed for this purpose. To check the validity, the obtained results were compared with some other stacking sequences. The numerical results of the proposed approach were also compared with other algorithms, which showed that the A-PSO algorithm provides a much higher convergence and reduces the required CPU time in searching for a global optimization solution. With respect to the first natural frequency and weight, a bi-objective optimization strategy for the optimal stacking sequence of FML panels is also presented using the weighted summation method.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2629_809f2748eb5f33570acb867d9ead4adc.pdf
2017-11-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
99
110
10.22075/macs.2017.1744.1087
Fiber Metal Laminate
Shallow Shell
Optimization
Adaptive PSO Algorithm
Hadi
Ghashochi-Bargh
ghashochi.b@aut.ac.ir
true
1
Buein Zahra Technical University
Buein Zahra Technical University
Buein Zahra Technical University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohammad Homayoun
Sadr
sadr@aut.ac.ir
true
2
Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
AUTHOR
[1] Shooshtari A, Razavi S. A closed form solution for linear and nonlinear free vibrations of composite and fiber metal laminated rectangular plates. Compos Struct 2010; 92: 2663-75.
1
[2] Botelho EC, Campos AN, Barros E, Pardini LC, Rezende MC. Damping behavior of continuous fiber/metal composite materials by the free vibration method. Compos: Part B 2006; 37: 255-63.
2
[3] Botelho EC, Almeida LC, Rezende MC. Elastic properties of hygrothermally conditioned glare laminate. Int J Eng Sci2007; 45: 163-72.
3
[4] Mateus HC, Soares CMM, Soares CAM. Sensitivity analysis and optimal design of thin laminated composite structures. Computers &Structures 1991; 41: 501-8.
4
[5] Narita Y. Layerwise optimization for the maximum fundamental frequency of laminated composite plates. J Sound and Vibration 2003; 263: 1005-16.
5
[6] Apalak MK, Yildirim M, Ekici R. Layer optimisation for maximum fundamental frequency of laminated composite plates for different edge conditions. Composites Science and Technology 2008; 68: 537-50.
6
[7] Ghashochi Bargh H, Sadr MH. Stacking sequence optimization of composite plates for maximum fundamental frequency using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Meccanica 2012; 47: 719-30.
7
[8] Sadr MH, Ghashochi Bargh H. Optimization of laminated composite plates for maximum fundamental frequency using Elitist-Genetic algorithm and ﬁnite strip method. J Glob Optim 2012; 54: 707-28.
8
[9] Ghashochi-Bargh H, Sadr MH. A modified multi-objective elitist-artificial bee colony algorithm for optimization of smart FML panels. Structural Engineering and Mechanics 2014; 52(6): 1209-1224.
9
[10] Sumana BG, Sagar HV, Sharma KV, Krishna M. Numerical analysis of the effect of fiber orientation on hydrostatic buckling behavior of fiber metal composite cylinder. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2015; 34(17): 1422-1432.
10
[11] Moniri Bidgoli AM, Heidari-Rarani M. Axial buckling response of fiber metal laminate circular cylindrical shells. Structural Engineering and Mechanics 2016; 57(1): 45-63.
11
[12] Topal U. Frequency optimization of laminated composite annular sector plates. Journal of Vibration and Control 2015; 21(2): 320-327.
12
[13] Nazari A, Malekzade Fard K, Majidian M. Vibration analysis of FML cylindrical shell optimized according to maximum natural frequency under various boundary conditions. Modares Mechanical Engineering 2016; 16(7): 143-152.
13
[14] Narita Y, Robinson P. Maximizing the fundamental frequency of laminated cylindrical panels using layerwise optimization. Int J Mech Sci 2006; 48: 1516-24.
14
[15] Eberhart RC, Kennedy J. A new optimizer using particle swarm theory. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on micro machine and human science, Nagoya, Japan. IEEE Service Center, Piscataway; 1995. p. 39–43.
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[16] Eberhart RC, Shi Y. Comparison between genetic algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization. In: Porto VW, Saravanan N, Waagen D and Eiben AE (eds) Evolutionary Programming VII, Springer; 1998. p. 611-16.
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[17] Hassan R, Cohanim B, Weck O. A comparison of particle swarm optimization and the genetic algorithm. In: 46th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC structures, structural dynamics & material conference, Austin, Texas; 2005. no. 1897.
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[18] Shi Y, Eberhart R. Fuzzy adaptive particle swarm optimization. In: Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Seoul, Korea; 2001.
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[19] Eberhart R.C, Shi Y.H, Tracking and optimizing dynamic systems with particle swarms. In: Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Korea; 2001.
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[20] Shi Y.H, Eberhart RC. Empirical study of particle swarm optimization. In: Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Washington DC, USA; 1999.
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[21] Shi Y.H, Eberhart R.C. Experimental study of particle swarm optimization. In: SCI2000 Conference, Orlando; 2000.
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[22] Fan S, Chiu Y. A decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimizer. Engineering Optimization 2007; 39: 203–228.
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[23] Ghashochi-Bargh H, Khalili M, Mirzakarimi-Isfahani S. An Elitist Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Numerical Optimization. Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems 2014; 3(4): 302-306.
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[24] Kang F, Li J, Ma Zh. Rosenbrock artificial bee colony algorithm for accurate global optimization of numerical functions. Information Sciences 2011; 181: 3508-31.
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[25] Avramov, KV, Papazov SV, Breslavsky ID. Dynamic instability of shallow shells in three-dimensional incompressible inviscid potential flow. Journal of Sound and Vibration 2017; 394: 593-611.
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[26] Kar VR, Mahapatra TR, Panda SK. Effect of different temperature load on thermal postbuckling behaviour of functionally graded shallow curved shell panels. Composite Structures 2017; 160: 1236-1247.
26
[27] Narita, Y, Robinson P. Maximizing the fundamental frequency of laminated cylindrical panels using layerwise optimization. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 2006; 48(12): 1516-1524.
27
[28] Vinson JR, Sierakowski RL. The behavior of structures composed of composite materials. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoﬀ; 1986.
28
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Open-Hole Size and Thermal Cycling Effects on Mass Loss and Surface Degradation of Polymer Matrix Composites
Degradation is a common problem for polymer matrix composites (PMCs) under low thermal cycling conditions. This paper investigates the effects of low thermal cycling on total mass loss (TML) and surface degradation of PMCs. Unnotched and open-hole specimens were weighed before and after low thermal cycling. The total mass loss and surface degradation of the specimens were studied over 250 cycles of 100˚C temperature difference. The experimental results showed that the mass loss linearly decreased during low thermal cycling. Also, it was found that laminates with smaller holes have higher percent mass loss than those with larger holes. Based on weight loss rates, a regression model is presented to evaluate the TML of laminated composite material samples. Also, under similar experimental conditions, the specimens exhibited 0.4% mass loss reduction after 250 cycles, and the incremental decrease of the hole diameter also decreased the TML. It was found that laminates with smaller holes have higher tensile strength variation than those with larger holes. The results showed that the incremental decrease of the hole diameter and number of cycles decreases the tensile strength of PMCs.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2630_3724b52306d29b39514e79e54a58be91.pdf
2017-11-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
111
116
10.22075/macs.2017.1671.1089
Open-Hole Specimens
Ther-malCycling
Mass Loss
Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)
Surface Degradation
Ahmad Reza
Ghasemi
ghasemi@kashanu.ac.ir
true
1
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mahdi
Moradi
mahdimoradi.83@gmail.com
true
2
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
AUTHOR
[1] Chung K, Seferis JC,Nam JD. Investigation of thermal degradation behavior of polymeric composites: prediction of thermal cycling effect from isothermal data. Compos Part A 2000; 31:945-957.
1
[2] Paillous A, Pailler C. Degradation of multiply polymer–matrix composites induced by space environment. Compos 1994;25(4):287–295.
2
[3] Chao Zh, Binienda KW, Morscher GN, MartinRE,Kohlman LW. Experimental and FEM study of thermal cycling induced microcracking in carbon/epoxy triaxial braided composites. Compos Part A 2013;46:34–44.
3
[4] Shin KB, Kim CG, Hong CS, Lee HH. Prediction of failure thermal cycles in graphite/epoxy composite materials under simulated low earth orbit environments. Compos Part B 2000; 31(3):223–35.
4
[5] Lafarie-Frenot MC. Damage mechanisms induced by cyclic ply-stresses in carbon–epoxy laminates: Environmental effects. Int J Fatigue 2006; 28(10): 1202–1216.
5
[6] Lafarie-Frenot MC, GrandidierJC, GigliottiM, OlivierL, ColinX, VerduJ,CinquinJ.Thermo-oxidation behaviour of composite materials at high temperatures: A review of research activities carried out within the COMEDI program. Polym Degradation Stability 2010;95(6):965–974.
6
[7] Ghasemi AR, Baghersad R, Sereshk MRV. Non-linear Behavior of Polymer Based Composite Laminates under Cyclic Thermal Shock and Its Effects on Residual Stresses. J Polym Sci Technol (In Persian) 2011; 24 (2), 133-140.
7
[8] Ghasemi AR, Moradi M. Low thermal cycling effects on mechanical properties of laminated composite materials. Mech Mater 2016;96:126–137.
8
[9] Ghasemi AR, Moradi M. Surface Degradation of Polymeric Composite under Different Thermal Cycling Conditions. J Solid Mech 2016.
9
[10] YudhantoA, IwahoriY, WatanabeN, HoshiH. Open hole fatigue characteristics and damage growth of stitched plain weave carbon/epoxy laminates.Int J Fatigue 2012;43:12–22.
10
[11] Persson E, Eriksson I, Zackrisson L. Effects of the hole machining defects on strength and fatigue life of composite laminates. Compos Part A 1997;28(A):141–51.
11
[12] Tagliaferri V, Caprino G, Diterlizzi A. Effect of drilling parameters on the finish and mechanical properties of GFRP composites. Int J Machine Tool Manuf 1990;30(1):77–84.
12
[13] SallehZ, BerhanMN, HyieKM, TaibYM, KalamA, RoselinaNRN. Open hole tensile properties of kenaf composite and kenaf/fiber glass hybrid composite laminates. Proc Eng 2013;68:399–404.
13
[14] Shimokawa T, Hamaguchi Y, Kakuta Y, Katoh H, Sanda T, Mizuno H, ToiY.Effect of isothermal aging on ultimate strength of high temperature composite materials for SST structures. J Compos Mater 1999;33(12):1104–1118.
14
[15] NakamuraH, Asagumo R, Tamura H, Shimokawa T, KatohH, Hamaguchi Y, Sanbongi Sh, Mizuno H. Effect of Thermal Cycling on Microcracking and Strength Degradation of High-Temperature Polymer Composite Materials for Use in Next-Generation SST Structures. J Compos Mater 2002;36:885.
15
[16] Ghasemi AR, Moradi M, Effect of Thermal Cycling and Open-Hole Size on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites. Polym Testing 2017; 59:20-28.
16
[17] ASTM, D.D 3039M-95a, Standard test method for tensile properties of polymer matrix composite materials (1997).
17
[18] Torabizadeh MA, Tensile, Compressive and Shear Properties of Unidirectional Glass/Epoxy Composites Subjected to Mechanical Loading and Low Temperature Services. Indian J Eng Mater Sci 2013;20:299-309.
18
[19] MINITAB 17 statistical software, Minitab Inc, 2013.
19
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Numerical Simulation of a Hybrid Nanocomposite Containing Ca-CO3 and Short Glass Fibers Subjected to Tensile Loading
The tensile properties of multiscale, hybrid, thermoplastic-based nanocomposites reinforced with nano-CaCO3 particles and micro–short glass fibers (SGF) were predicted by a two-step, three-dimensionalmodel using ANSYS finite element (FE) software. Cylindrical and cuboid representative volume elements were generated to obtain the effective behavior of the multiscale hybrid composites. In the first step, the mechanical performance of co-polypropylene/CaCO3 nanocomposite was analyzed. The thickness of the interphase layer around the nanoparticles was estimated by using differential scanning calorimetry data. In the second step, the nanocomposite (co-polypropylene/CaCO3) was considered as an effective matrix, and then the effect of micro-SGF inclusion on the corresponding effective matrix was evaluated. The FE and experimental stress-strain curves of multiscale, hybrid composites were compared at different weight fractions of the nanoparticle. The proposed two-step method can easily predict the tensile properties of multiscale, hybrid, thermoplastic-based nanocomposites.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2628_3a8ffbeaff2506ee20ed7396236cf299.pdf
2017-11-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
117
125
10.22075/macs.2017.1772.1092
Hybrid thermoplastic nanocomposites
Effective matrix
Finite element method
Tensile properties
Minoo Dokht
Shokrian
md.shokrian@tabrizu.ac.ir
true
1
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz
LEAD_AUTHOR
Karim
Shelesh-Nezhad
shelesh-nezhad@tabrizu.ac.ir
true
2
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran
AUTHOR
Behzad
H Soudmand
b.soudmand@tabrizu.ac.ir
true
3
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran
Department of mechanical engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Lee DJ, Oh H, Song YS, Youn JR. Analysis of effective elastic modulus for multiphased hybrid composites. Compos Sci Technol 2012; 72(2):278-283.
1
[2] Wan T, Liao S, Wang K, Yan P, Clifford M. Multiscale hybrid polyamide 6 composites reinforced with nano-scale clay and micro-scale short glass fibre. Compos Part A: Appl Sci Manuf 2013; 50:31-38.
2
[3] Liu T, Wang Y, Eyler A, Zhong W-H. Synergistic effects of hybrid graphitic nanofillers on simultaneously enhanced wear and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites. Eur Polym J 2014; 55:210-221.
3
[4] Karsli NG, Yesil S, Aytac A. Effect of hybrid carbon nanotube/short glass fiber reinforcement on the properties of polypropylene composites. Compos Part B 2014; 63:154-160.
4
[5] Pedrazzoli D,Pegoretti A. Silica nanoparticles as coupling agents for polypropylene/glass composites. Compos Sci Technol 2013; 76:77–83.
5
[6] Thostenson ET, Li WZ, Wang DZ, Ren ZF, Chou TW. Carbon nanotube/carbon fiber hybrid multiscale composites J Appl Phys 2002; 91(9).
6
[7] Hartikainen J, et al. Polypropylene hybrid composites reinforced with long glass fibres and particulate filler. Compos Sci Technol 2005; 65(2):257-267.
7
[8] Pande S,Sharma D. Strength and stiffness of short glass fibre/glass particulate hybrid composites. Fibre Sci Technol 1984; 20:235–43.
8
[9] Szeluga U, Kumanek B, Trzebicka B. Synergy in hybrid polymer/nanocarbon composites. A review. Compos Part A 2015; 73:204-231.
9
[10] Venkateshwaran N, Elayaperumal A, Sathiya GK. Prediction of tensile properties of hybrid-natural fiber composites. Compos Part B 2012; 43:793-796.
10
[11] Fu S-Y, Xu G, Mai Y-W. on the elastic modulus of hybrid particle/short-fiber/polymer composites. Compos Part B 2002; 33.
11
[12] Lee DJ, Hwang SH, Song YS, Youn JR. Statistical modeling of effective elastic modulus for multiphased hybrid composites. Polym Testing 2015; 41:99-105.
12
[13] Guan X, et al. A stochastic multiscale model for predicting mechanical properties of fiber reinforced concrete. Int J Solids Struct 2015; 56–57:280-289.
13
[14] Pontefisso A, Zappalorto M, Quaresimin M. Influence of interphase and filler distribution on the elastic properties of nanoparticle filled polymers. Mech Res Commun 2013; 52:92-94.
14
[15] Boutaleb S, et al. Micromechanical modelling of the yield stress of polymer-particulate nanocomposites with an inhomogeneous interphase. Procedia Eng 2009; 1(1):217-220.
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[16] Zamani-Zakaria A,Shelesh-Nezhad K. The Effects of Interphase and Interface Characteristics on the Tensile Behaviour of POM/CaCO3 Nanocomposites. Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology 2014; 14(17):1–10.
16
[17] Sattaria M, Naimi-Jamal MR, Khavandi A. Interphase evaluation and nano-mechanical responses of UHMWPE / SCF / nano-SiO2hybrid composites. Polym Testing 2014; 38:26-34.
17
[18] Hadden CM, et al. Molecular modeling of EPON-862/graphite composites: Interfacial characteristics for multiple crosslink densities. Compos Sci Technol 2013; 76(0):92-99.
18
[19] Choi J, Shin H, Yang S, Cho M. The influence of nanoparticle size on the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites and the associated interphase region: A multiscale approach. Compos Struct 2015; 119(0):365-376.
19
[20] Tsai J-L,Tzeng S-H. Characterizing mechanical properties of particulate nanocomposites using micromechanical approach. J Compos Mater 2008; 42(22):2345-2361.
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[21] Arrighi V, Mcewen IJ, H.Qian, Prieto MBS. The glass transition and interfacial layer in styrene-butadiene rubber containing silica nanofiller. Polym 2003; 44(20):6259-6266.
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[22] Jang J-S, Bouveret B, Suhr J, Gibson RF. Combined numerical/experimental investigation of particle diameter and interphase effects on coefficient of thermal expansion and young's modulus of SiO2/epoxy nanocomposites. Polym Compos 2012; 33(8):1415–1423.
22
[23] Zamani-Zakaria A, F MS, Shelesh-Nezhad K. A combined numerical and experimental study for characterizing interfacial properties of polyoxymethylene–calcium carbonate nanocomposites in tensile state. J Compos Mater 2015; 0:1-10.
23
[24] Zare Y. Modeling the strength and thickness of the interphase in polymer nanocomposite reinforced with spherical nanoparticles by a coupling methodology. J Colloid Interface Sci 2016; 465:342-346.
24
[25] Hutar P, Náhlík L, Majer Z, Knésl Z. 5-The Effect of an Interphase on Micro-Crack Behaviour in Polymer Composites, in Computational Modelling and Advanced Simulations, Springer Science+Business Media B.V;2011.
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[26] Zeng X, Fan H, Zhang J. Prediction of the effects of particle and matrix morphologies on Al2O3 particle/polymer composites by finite element method. Comput Mater Sci 2007; 40(3):395-399.
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[27] Chang S, Yang S, Shin H, Cho M. Multiscale homogenization model for thermoelastic behavior of epoxy-based composites with polydisperse SiC nanoparticles. Compos Struct 2015; 128:342-353.
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[28] Kemal I, Whittle A, Burford R, Vodenitcharova T, Hoffman M. Toughening of unmodified polyvinylchloride through the addition of nanoparticulate calcium carbonate. Polym 2009; 50(16):4066-4079.
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[29] Wang K, et al. Micromechanical modeling of the elastic behavior of polypropylene based organoclay nanocomposites under a wide range of temperatures and strain rates/frequencies. Mech Mater 2013; 64:56-68.
29
[30] Shokrian MD, Shelesh-Nezhad K, Soudmand BH. 3D FE analysis of tensile behavior for co-PP/SGF composite by considering interfacial debonding using CZM. J Reinforced Plastics Compos 2015.
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[32] Wongsto A, Li S. Micromechanical FE analysis of UD fibre-reinforced composites with fibres distributed at random over the transverse cross-section. Compos Part A: Appl Sci Manuf 2005; 36(9):1246-1266.
32
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[34] Lu Z, Yuan Z, Liu Q. 3D numerical simulation for the elastic properties of random fiber composites with a wide range of fiber aspect ratios. Comput Mater Sci 2014; 90:123–129.
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35
[36] Romanowicz M. Progressive failure analysis of unidirectional fiber-reinforced polymers with inhomogeneous interphase and randomly distributed fibers under transverse tensile loading. Compos Part A: Appl Sci Manuf 2010; 41(12):1829-1838.
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[37] Peng RD, Zhou HW, Wang HW, Mishnaevsky L. Modeling of nano-reinforced polymer composites: Microstructure effect on Young’s modulus. Comput Mater Sci 2012; 60:19-31.
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[39] Zuberia MJS,Esat V. Investigating the mechanical properties of single walled carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy composite through finite element modelling. Compos Part B 2015; 71:1–9.
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[41] Zamani Zakaria A,Shelesh-Nezhad K. Quantifying the particle size and interphase percolation effects on the elastic performance of semi-crystalline nanocomposites. Comput Mater Sci 2016; 117:502-510.
41
[42] Fu S-Y,Lauke B. Characterization of tensile behaviour of hybrid short glass fibre/calcite particle/ABS composites. Compos Part A: Appl Sci Manuf 1998; 29(5–6):575-583.
42
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Free Vibration Analysis of Size-Dependent, Functionally Graded, Rectangular Nano/Micro-plates based on Modified Nonlinear Couple Stress Shear Deformation Plate Theories
In the present study, a vibration analysis of functionally graded rectangular nano-/microplates was considered based on modified nonlinear coupled stress exponential and trigonometric shear deformation plate theories. Modified coupled stress theory is a non-classical continuum mechanics theory. In this theory, a material-length scale parameter is applied to account for the effect of nanostructure size that earlier classical plate theories are not able to explain. The material properties of the plate were assumed to vary according to a power-law form in the thickness direction. The governing equation of the motion of functionally graded, rectangular nano-/microplates with different boundary conditions were obtained based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method using complete algebraic polynomial displacement and rotation functions. The advantage of the present Rayleigh-Ritz method is that it can easily handle the different conditions at the boundaries of moderately thick rectangular plates (e.g., clamped, simply supported, and free). A comparison of the results with those available in the literature has been made. Finally, the effect of various parameters, such as the power-law index, thickness-to-length scale parameter ratio h/l, and aspect ratio a/b, on the natural frequency of nano/micro-plates are presented and discussed in detail.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2627_2eaf555c6de9466b4454eb888e67a877.pdf
2017-11-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
127
137
10.22075/macs.2017.1800.1094
Rayleigh-Ritz
vibration
Couple stress theory
Functionally graded
Korosh
Khorshidi
k-khorshidi@araku.ac.ir
true
1
Arak University
Arak University
Arak University
LEAD_AUTHOR
Abolfazl
Fallah
falah.abolfazl67@gmail.com
true
2
Arak University
Arak University
Arak University
AUTHOR
[1] Yang FA, Chong AC, Lam DC, Tong P. Couple stress based strain gradient theory for elasticity. Int J Solides Struct 2002; 39: 2731-2743.
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[5] Matsunaga H. Free vibration and stability of functionally graded plates according to a 2- graded plates according to a 2-D higher-order deformation theory. Compos Struct 2008; 82; 499-512.
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[6] Salehipour H, Nahvi H, Shahidi AR. Exact closed-form free vibration analysis for functionally graded micro/nano plates based on modified couple stress and three-dimensional elasticity theories. Compos Struct 2015; 124: 283-291.
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[7] Ansari R, Faghih-Shojaei M, Mohammadi V, Gholami R, Darabi MA. Nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded Mindlin microplates based on the modified couple stress theory. Compos Struct 2014; 114: 124-134.
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[8] Kim J, Reddy JN. Analytical solutions for bending, vibration, and buckling of FGM plates using a couple stress-based third-order theory. Compos Struct 2013; 103: 86-98.
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[9] Thai H-T, Vo TP. A size-dependent functionally graded sinusoidal plate model based on a modified couple stress theory. Compos Struct 2013; 96: 376-383.
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[12] He L, Lou J, Zhang E, Wang Y, Bai Y. A size-dependent four variable refined plate model for functionally graded microplates based on modified couple stress theory. Compos Struct 2015; 130: 107-115.
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[13] Zhang B, He Y, Liu D, Shen L, Lei J. An efficient size-dependent plate theory for bending, buckling and free vibration analyses of functionally graded microplates resting on elastic foundation. Appl Math Model 2015; 39(13): 3814-3845.
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[14] Lou J, He L, Du J. A unified higher order plate theory for functionally graded microplates based on the modified couple stress theory. Compos Struct 2015; 133: 1036-1047.
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[15] Thai H-T, Kim S-E. A size-dependent functionally graded Reddy plate model based on a modified couple stress theory. Compos Part B: Eng 2013; 45(1): 1636-1645.
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[16] Gupta A, Jain NK, Salhotra R, Joshi PV. Effect of microstructure on vibration characteristics of partially cracked rectangular plates based on a modified couple stress theory. Int J Mech Sci 2015; 100: 269-282.
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[18] Nguyen HX, Nguyen TN, Abdel-Wahab M, Bordas SPA, Nguyen-Xuan H, Vo TP. A refined quasi-3D isogeometric analysis for functionally graded microplates based on the modified couple stress theory. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 2017; 313: 904-940.
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[19] Lei J, He Y, Zhang B, Liu D, Shen L, Guo S. A size-dependent FG micro-plate model incorporating higher-order shear and normal deformation effects based on a modified couple stress theory. Int J Mech Sci 2015; 104: 8-23.
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[20] Jandaghian AA, Rahmani O. Vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric nanoscale plates by nonlocal elasticity theory: An analytical solution. Superlattices Microstructures 2016; 100: 57-75.
20
[21] Şimşeka M, Aydınc M. Size-dependent forced vibration of an imperfect functionally graded (FG) microplate with porosities subjected to a moving load using the modified couple stress theory. Compos Struct 2017; 160: 408-421.
21
[22] Thai HT, Choi DH. Size-dependent functionally graded Kirchhoff and Mindlin plate models based on a modified couple stress theory. Compos Struct 2013; 95; 142-153.
22
[23] Khorshidi K, Asgari T, Fallah A. Free vibrations analaysis of functionally graded rectangular na-noplates based on nonlocal exponential shear deformation theory. Mech Adv Compos Struct 2016; 2(2): 79-93.
23
[24] Khorshidi K, Fallah A. Buckling analysis of functionally graded rectangular nano-plate based on nonlocal exponential shear deformation theory. Int J Mech Sci 2016; 113: 94-104.
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[25] Khorshidi K, Khodadadi M. Precision Closed-form Solution for Out-of-plane Vibration of Rectangular Plates via Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory. Mech Adv Compos Struct 2016; 3(1): 31-43.
25
[26] Reddy JN, Kim J. A nonlinear modified couple stress-based third-order theory of functionally graded plates. Compos Struct 2012; 94(3);1128-1143.
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[27] Simsek M, Reddy JN. Bending and vibration of functionally graded microbeams using a new higher order beam theory and the modified couple stress theory. Int J Eng Sci 2013; 64; 37–53.
27
[28] Jung WY, Han SCH, Park WT. A modified couple stress theory for buckling analysis of S-FGM nanoplates embedded in Pasternak elastic medium. Compos Part B 2014; 60; 746–56.
28
[29] Jung WY, Park WT, Han SCH. Bending and vibration analysis of S-FGM microplates embedded in Pasternak elastic medium using the modified couple stress theory. Int J Mech Sci 2014; 87;150–62.
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[30] Ramu I, Mohanty SC. Study on free vibration analysis of rectangular plate structures using finite element method. Procedia Eng 2012; 31(38):2758-66.
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[34] Chu F, Wang L, Zhong Z, He J. Hermite radial basis collocation method for vibration of functionally graded plates with in-plane material inhomogeneity. Comput Struct 2014; 142; 79-89.
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[36] Reddy JN. Nonlocal theories for bending, buckling and vibration of beams. Int J Eng Sci 2007; 45(2); 288-307.
36
[37] Khorshidi K. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on vibrating rectangular plates coupled with fluid. Sci Iranica. Trans A: Civil Eng 2010; 17(6): 415–29.
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39
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A Quasi-3D Polynomial Shear and Normal Deformation Theory for Laminated Composite, Sandwich, and Functionally Graded Beams
Bending analyses of isotropic, functionally graded, laminated composite, and sandwich beams are carried out using a quasi-3D polynomial shear and normal deformation theory. The most important feature of the proposed theory is that it considers the effects of transverse shear and transverse normal deformations. It accounts for parabolic variations in the strain/stress produced by transverse shear and satisfies the transverse shear stress-free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of a beam without the use of a shear correction factor. Variationally consistent governing differential equations and associated boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. Navier closed-form solutions are employed to obtain displacements and stresses for the simply supported beams, which are subjected to sinusoidal and uniformly distributed loads. Results are compared with those derived using other higher-order shear deformation theories. The comparison validates the accuracy and efficiency of the theory put forward in this work.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2626_488a3f411d5b29fb979f66eeeb1624f9.pdf
2017-11-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
139
152
10.22075/macs.2017.10806.1105
Laminate
Sandwich
Functionally graded
Shear and normal deformation
Bharti
Shinde
bhartishinde1987@yahoo.co.in
true
1
Department of Civil Engineering, SRES’s Sanjivani College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Kopargaon-423603, Maharashtra, India
Department of Civil Engineering, SRES’s Sanjivani College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Kopargaon-423603, Maharashtra, India
Department of Civil Engineering, SRES’s Sanjivani College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Kopargaon-423603, Maharashtra, India
AUTHOR
Atteshamuddin
Sayyad
attu_sayyad@yahoo.co.in
true
2
Department of Civil Engineering, SRES&#039;s College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Kopargaon,-423601
Department of Civil Engineering, SRES&#039;s College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Kopargaon,-423601
Department of Civil Engineering, SRES&#039;s College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Kopargaon,-423601
LEAD_AUTHOR
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[2] Timoshenko SP. on the correction for shear of the differential equation for transverse vibrations of prismatic bar. Philosophical Magazine Series 6. 1921; 41: 744-746.
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[5] Ghugal YM, Sharma R. A hyperbolic shear deformation theory for flexure and vibration of thick isotropic beams. Int J Comput Meth 2009; 6(4): 585-604.
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[15] Vo TP, Thai HT. Static behavior of composite beams using various refined shear deformation theories. Compos Struct 2012; 94: 2513–2522.
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[21] Giunta G, Crisafulli D, Belouettar S, Carrera E. A thermo-mechanical analysis of functionally graded beams via hierarchical modeling. Compos Struct 2013; 95: 676–690.
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41
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Mesh-free Dynamic Analyses of FGM Sandwich Plates Resting on A Pasternak Elastic Foundation
This study analyzes the free vibration, forced vibration, resonance, and stress wave propagation of orthotropic sandwich plates made of functionally graded materials (FGMs). Dynamic analyses are conducted using a mesh-free method based on first-order shear deformation theory and the shape functions constructed using moving least squares approximation. The sandwich plates are rested on a Pasternak elastic foundation and subjected to periodic or impact loading and essential boundary conditions, which are imposed through a transfer function method. The sandwich plates are assumed to be composed of a homogeneous orthotropic core and two orthotropic FGM face sheets made of two orthotropic materials. The volume fractions of the materials are varied smoothly along the thickness of the face sheets. The convergence and accuracy of the applied method are demonstrated, after which numerical analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of elastic foundation coefficients, material distributions, geometrical dimensions, time-dependent loading, and boundary conditions on the vibrational and dynamic characteristics of the orthotropic FGM sandwich plates.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2624_b408acaab5d0b87c655139a3e15abcd0.pdf
2017-11-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
153
168
10.22075/macs.2017.11043.1107
Wave propagation
Sandwich plate
Functional graded material
Mesh-free
First-order shear deformation theory
Rasool
Moradi-dastjerdi
rasoul.moradi@iaukhsh.ac.ir
true
1
Young Researchers and Elite Club,Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club,Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club,Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hamed
Momeni-Khabisi
h.momeni@ujiroft.ac.ir
true
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
AUTHOR
Ramin
Baghbani
baghbani.ramin@gmail.com
true
3
Department of Water Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Water Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Water Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
AUTHOR
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ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Using the Taguchi Method for Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Square-Cup Deep-Drawing Process for Aluminum/Steel Laminated Sheets
The effects of input parameters on the square-cup deep-drawing process for a two-layer aluminum/steel laminated sheet were investigated. Each layer was 0.7 mm thick, and the input parameters covered in the investigation were punch nose radius (PR), die shoulder radius (DR), the clearance between a punch and die (CPD), blank holder force (BHF), and layer arrangement (LA). The effects of the input parameters on wrinkling and thinning defects were determined by finite element simulation and Taguchi’s design of experiments. Experimental tests were conducted to validate the finite element analysis results. Results indicated that the parameter exerting the greatest effect on thinning defects was PR, followed by LA relative to the other parameters. BHF had the highest influence on the wrinkle height of the two-layer aluminum/steel sheet. Optimization was conducted, and the optimum input parameter values that caused the least wrinkling and thinning defects were 5.35 mm for DR, 8.35 mm for PR, 6000 N for BHF, and 1.3 t for CPD.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2583_1de9aa66b9db11a15af5482988c92ad9.pdf
2017-11-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
169
177
10.22075/macs.2017.11051.1108
Deep drawing
Laminated sheet
Square
Taguchi
Finite element simulation
Masoud
Mahmoodi
mahmoodi@semnan.ac.ir
true
1
Mechanical Engineering Dept. Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Dept. Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Dept. Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Habib
Sohrabi
habib_sohrabi@semnan.ac.ir
true
2
Mechanical Engineering Dept. Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Dept. Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Mechanical Engineering Dept. Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
AUTHOR
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