ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer/Nanosilicagel Nano-composites
In this study, a polymer-silica nanocomposite using the sol-gel method was synthesized in three steps at room temperature. The nanocomposite material was formed with an organic compound (polyethylene glycol) and inorganic silica nanoparticles. Furthermore, the size and the distribution of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix were characterized by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In addition, the refractometer analysis was used to measure the refractive index of the nanocomposite. Following that, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray diffraction and high X-ray diffraction have also used to characterize the polymer and the inorganic part of the nanocomposite. TEM studies showed the distribution of nanoscale silica particles of the size of 50-100 (nm) in the polymer matrix. Furthermore, the refractive index of the nanocomposite was measured about 1.4, which was very close to the refractive index of the natural lens (1.411). Additionally, the FTIR spectra showed OH groups in FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed the hydrophilic property of silica nanoparticles and the two sharp peaks at the angles of 19° and 23° in the X-ray diffraction analyses, which were in the nature of the crystallinity of polyethylene glycol. Finally, the results showed the surface modification of nanoparticles and their incorporation in a polymer matrix, which led to the formation of the desired nanocomposite that was made of inorganic (silica nanoparticles) and an organic (polyethylene glycol) compound.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_500_772032dbd6f3fa6b249633366b3de44f.pdf
2017-04-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
1
8
10.22075/macs.2016.500
Nanocomposite
Biocompatible polymer
Silica
Sol-gel
Refractive index
Rheology
Intraocular lenses
F.
Shakooeea
fshakouey@yahoo.com
true
1
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
AUTHOR
Mardali
Yousefpoar
myousefpor@semnan.ac.ir
true
2
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohammad
Tajali
mtajali@semnan.ac.ir
true
3
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Daniel-da-silva AL, Pinto F, Lopes-da-silva JA, Trindade T, Goodfellow BJ, Gil AM. Rheological be-havior of thermo-reversible κ-carrageenan / nanosili-ca gels. Colloid Interface Sci 2008; 320: 365-614.
1
[2] Kango S, Kalia S, Celli A, Njuguna J, Habibi Y, Ku-mar R. Surface modification of inorganic nanoparti-cles for development of organic-inorganic nanocom-posites - A review. Prog Polym Sci 2013; 38: 1232-1261.
2
[3] Annaka M, Mortensen K, Matsuura T, Nochiokad MIK, Ogata N. Organic-inorganic nanocomposite gels as an in situ gelation biomaterial for injectable ac-commodative intraocular lens. Soft Mater 2012; 8: 7185-7196.
3
[4] Nagarwal CR, Kant S, Singh PN, Maiti P, Pandit JK. Polymeric nanoparticulate system: A potential ap-proach for ocular drug delivery. J Control Rel 2009; 136: 2-13.
4
[5] Hao X, Jeffery JL, Wilkie JS, Meijs GF, Clayton AB, Watling JD, Ho A, Fernandez V, Acosta C, Yamamoto H, Mohamed GM, Parel JM, Hughes TC. Functionalised polysiloxanes as injectable, in situ curable accommo-dating intraocular lenses. Biomaterials 2010; 31: 8153-8163.
5
[6] Nishi O, Nishi Y, Chang S, Nishi K. Accommoda-tion amplitudes after an accommodating intraocular lens refilling procedure: In vivo update. J Cataract Refract Surg 2014; 40: 295-305.
6
[7] Assia E. Accommodative intraocular lens: A chal-lenge for future development. J Cataract Refract Surg 1997; 23: 332-336.
7
[8] Colthurst MJ, Williams RL, Hiscott PS, Grierson I. Biomaterials used in the posterior segment of the eye. Biomaterials 2000; 21: 649-665.
8
[9] DeBoer C, Wan Do H, Lee J, Humayun M, Tai YC. Biomimetic accommodating intraocular lens. IEEE; 2012.
9
[10] Kayo ON, Nishi NY, Chang S. Capsular bag refill-ing using a new accommodating intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 2008; 34: 302-309.
10
[11] Reilly MA, Hamilton PD, Perry G, Ravi N. Com-parison of the behavior of natural and refilled porcine lenses in a robotic lens stretcher. Experim Eye Res 2009; 88: 483-494.
11
[12] Nishi Y, Mireskandari K, Khaw P. Lens refilling to restore accommodation. J Cataract Refract Surg 2009; 35: 374-382.
12
[13] Nishi O, Nishi K, Mano C, Ichihara M, Honda T. Lens refilling with injectable silicone in rabbit eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg 1998; 24: 975-982.
13
[14] Hunter JJ, Melanie CW, Geraghty E. Optical analy-sis of an accommodating intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 2006; 32: 269-278.
14
[15] Vilupuru AS, Glasser A. Optical and biometric relationships of the isolated pig crystalline lens. Oph-thal Physiol Opt 2001; 21: 296-311.
15
[16] Koopmans SA, Terwee T, Van Kooten TG. Preven-tion of capsular opacification after accommodative lens refilling surgery in rabbits. Biomaterials 2011; 32: 5743-5755.
16
[17] Koopmans SA, Terwee T, Hanssen A, Martin H, Langner S, Stachs O, Van Kooten TG. Prevention of capsule opacification after accommodating lens refill-ing: Pilot study of strategies evaluated in a monkey model. J Cataract Refract Surg 2014; 40: 1521-1535.
17
[18] Rana A, Miller D, Magnante P. Understanding the accommodating intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 2003; 29: 2284-2287.
18
[19] Entabi M, Harman F, Lee N, Bloom PA. Injectable, 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic toric intraocular lens for cataract surgery: Efficacy and stability. J Cataract Refract Surg 2011; 37: 235-240.
19
[20] Xu T, Jiaa Z, Luo Y, Jia D, Pengba Z. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber andsilica in natural rubber/silica composites. Appl Surf Sci 2015; 328: 306-313.
20
[21] Yousefpour MA, Taherian Z. The effects of ageing time on the microstructure and properties of mesopo-rous silica-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite. Superlat-tices Microstruct 2013; 54: 78-86.
21
[22] He L, Li J, Zhou C, Zhu H, Cao Z, Tang B. Phase change characteristics of shape-stabilized PEG/SiO2 composites using calcium chloride-assisted and tem-perature-assisted sol gel methods. Solar Energy 2014; 103: 448-455.
22
[23] Khanna L, Verma NK. Study on novel, superpar-amagnetic and biocompatible PEG/KFeO2 nanocom-posite. J Appl Biomedicine 2014; 349: 116-120.
23
[24] Evora VMF, Shukla A. Fabrication, characteriza-tion, and dynamic behavior of polyester/TiO2 nano-composites. Mater Sci Eng A 2003; 361(1-2): 358-366.
24
[25] Oh C, Ki CD, Chang JY, Oh SG. Preparation of PEG-grafted silica particles using emulsion method. Mater Letters 2005; 59: 929-933.
25
[26] Kiasat AR, Nazari S, Davarpanah J. Facile synthe-sis of an organic-inorganic nanocomposite, PEG-silica, by sol-gel method; its characterization and ap-plication as an efficient catalyst in regioselective nu-cleophilic ring opening of epoxides: Preparation of b-azido alcohols and b-cyanohydrins. Chimie 2014; 17: 124-130.
26
[27] Kwon JW, Han YK, Lee WJ, Cho CS, Paik SJ, Cho D, Lee JH, Wee WR. Biocompatibility of poloxamer hy-drogel as an injectable intraocular lens. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005; 31: 607-613.
27
[28] Hao X, Jeffery JL, Tam PT, McFarland G, Johnson G, Mulder RJ, Garrett Q, Nankivil FMD, Arrieta E, Ho A, Parel JM, Hughes TC. High refractive index pol-ysiloxane as Injectable, in situ curable accommodat-ing intraocular lens. Biomaterials 2012; 33: 5659-5671.
28
[29] Kjoniksen AL, Nystro B, Lindman B. Dynamic viscoelasticity of gelling and nongelling aqueous mix-tures of ethyl (hydroxyethyl) cellulose and an ionic surfactant. Macromolecules 1998; 31: 1852-1858.
29
[30] Qian T, Li J, Yang H. The preparationofagreen-shape-stabilized composite phase change material of polyethyleneglycol/SiO2 with enhanced thermal per-formance based on oil shaleash via temperature-assisted sol-gel method, Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 2015; 132: 29-39.
30
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Distribution of Residual Stresses in Polymer Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes and Laminated Carbon Fibers
In this study, the distribution of residual stress in fiber-reinforced nanocomposites is investigated. Fiber-reinforced nanocomposite is composed of three substances: carbon fiber, carbon nanotube (CNT), and polymer matrix. Unit cells in hexagonal packing array with different arrays as unit cell, 3*3 and 5*5 arrays have been selected as suitable for finite element analysis of residual stresses. Radial and tangential residual stress have been determined in different directions by finite element analysis using ABAQUS commercial software for each phase individually. The effect of the CNTs’ various volume fractions (0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%) on residual stress distribution has been studied in different directions and compared to one another for each phase. Results show that the 3*3 unit cells arrays are suitable for modeling micro-residual stresses, and the results of this array are reliable. In addition, adding a 3% volume fraction of CNTs to the matrix is the best option for reduction of overall residual stresses with minimal fluctuation in local micro-residual stresses.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_476_923c3b22a4f37795ee7ade15f4833926.pdf
2017-04-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
9
18
10.22075/macs.2016.476
Residual stresses
Carbon nanotube
Nanocomposite
Unit cell
Ahmad Reza
Ghasemi
ghasemi@kashanu.ac.ir
true
1
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohammad
Mohammadi-Fesharaki
mohammadi.shirazu@gmail.com
true
2
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
University of Kashan
AUTHOR
[1] Hahn HT, Pagano NJ. Curing stresses in composite laminates. J Compos Mater 1975; 9(1): 91-106.
1
[2] Shokrieh MM, Ghasemi AR. Simulation of central hole drilling process for measurement of residual Stresses in isotropic, orthotropic, and laminated composite plates .J Compos Mater 2007; 41(4): 435-452.
2
[3] Ghasemi AR, Shokrieh MM. Development of an integral method for determination of non-uniform residual stresses in laminated composites. Iran J Polym Sci & Tech 2008; 21(4): 347-355.
3
[4] Ghasemi A, Taheri-Behrooz F, Shokrieh M. Determination of non-uniform residual stresses in laminated composites using integral hole drilling method: Experimental evaluation. J Compos Mater 2014; 48(4): 415-425.
4
[5] Ghasemi AR, Mohammadi M. Calculation of calibration factors for determination of residual stresses in fiber-metal laminates using incremental hole-drilling method. J Sci Tech Compos 2014; 1(1): 35-44.
5
[6] Ghasemi AR, Mohammadi M. Residual stress measurement of fiber metal laminates using incremental hole-drilling technique in consideration of the integral method. Int J Mech Sci 2016; 114: 246-256.
6
[7] Abouhamzeh M, Sinke J, Jansen KMB, Benedictus R. Closed form expression for residual stresses and warpage during cure of composite laminates. Compos Struct 2015; 133: 902-910.
7
[8] Chen Y, Xia Z, Ellyin F. Evolution of Residual Stresses Induced During Curing Processing Using a Viscoelastic Micromechanical Model. Compos. Mater 2001; 35: 522-542.
8
[9] Aghdam MM, Khojeh A. More on the Effects of Thermal Residual and Hydrostatic Stresses on Yielding Behavior of Unidirectional Composites. Compos Struct 2003; 62: 285-290.
9
[10] Karami G, Garnich M. Micromechanical Study of Thermoelastic Behavior of Composites with Periodic Fiber Waviness, Compos Part B 2005; 36: 241-248.
10
[11] Zhao LG, Warrior N.A, Long AC. A Thermo-Viscoelastic Analysis of Process-Induced Residual Stress in Fibre-Reinforced Polymer–Matrix Composites, Mater Sci Eng 2007; 452: 483-498.
11
[12] Jin KK, Huang Y, Lee Y, Sung KH. Distribution of MicroStresses and Interfacial Tractions in Unidirectional Composites. Compos Mater 2008; 42: 1825-1849.
12
[13] Quek M. Analysis of Residual Stresses in a Single Fibre–Matrix Composite. IntJ Adhes Adhes 2004; 24(5): 379-388.
13
[14] Hsueh C H, Becher PF, Sun EY. Analyses of thermal expansion behavior of intergranular two-phase composites. J Mater Sci 2001; 36: 255-261.
14
[15] Jayaraman K, Reifsnider KL. Residual Stresses in a Composite with Continuously Varying Young’s Modulus in the Fiber/Matrix Interphase. Compos Mater 1992; 26: 770-791.
15
[16] Jayaraman K, Reifsnider KL. The Interphase in Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Epoxies: Effect of Residual Thermal Stresses. Compos Sci Technol 1993; 47: 119-129.
16
[17] Bianchi V, Goursat P, Menessier E. Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced YMAS Glass Ceramic Matrix -IV Thermal Residual Stresses and Fiber/Matrix Interfaces. Compos Sci Technol 1998; 58: 409-418.
17
[18] Quek MY, Yue CY. Axisymmetric Stress Distribution inthe Single Filament Pull outTest. Mater Sci Eng 1994; 189: 105-116.
18
[19] Zhang Y, Xia Z, Ellyin F. Evolution and Influence of Residual Stresses/Strains of Fiber Reinforced Laminates. Compos Sci Technol 2004; 64: 1613-1625.
19
[20] Song DY, Takeda N, Ogihara S. A Method of Stress Analysis for Interfacial Property Evaluation in Thermoplastic Composites. Mater Sci Eng 2000; 278: 242-246.
20
[21] Levin I, Kaplan WD, Brandon D,Wieder T. Residual stresses in alumina-SiC nanocomposites. Acta Metall Mater 1994; 42(4): 1147-1154.
21
[22] Todd R, Bourke M, Borsa C, Brook R. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in alumina/SiC nanocomposites. Acta Mater 1997; 45(4): 1791-1800.
22
[23] Wu H. Residual stresses in composite materials. Woodhead Publishing; 2014.
23
[24] Maligno AR. Finite element investigations on the microstructure of composite materials. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nottingham, 2008.
24
[25] Moreno MM, Marques FD. Influence of Boundary Conditions on the Determination of Effective Material Properties for Active Fiber Composites. 11th Pan-American Cong Appl Mech; 2010.
25
[26] Shokrieh MM, Ghanei-Mohammadi AR. Finite Element Modeling of Residual Thermal Stresses in Fiber-Reinforced Composites Using Different Representative Volume Elements. World Cong Eng; 2010.
26
[27] Shokrieh MM, Safarabadi M. Three-dimensional analysis of micro residual stresses in fibrous composites based on the energy method: a study including interphase effects. J Com Mat 2012; 46(6): 727-735.
27
[28] Shokrieh M, Daneshvar A and Akbari S. Reduction of thermal residual stresses of laminated polymer composites by addition of carbon nanotubes. Mater Des 2014; 53: 209-216.
28
[29] Ghasemi AR, Mohammadi MM, Mohandes M. The role of carbon nanofibers on thermo-mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites and their effect on reduction of residual stresses. Compos Part B 2015; 77: 519-527.
29
[30] Ghasemi AR and Mohammadi M. Three-dimensional residual stresses analysis of nanocomposite polymeric matrix based on fiber reinforced carbon nanotubes. J Sci Tech Comp 2016; 4(2): 23-30.
30
[31] Ghasemi AR, Mohammadi M. Development of Circular Disk Model for Polymeric Nanocomposites and Micromechanical Analysis of Residual Stresses in Reinforced Fibers with Carbon Nanotubes. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2017; 35(2): 177-196.
31
[32] Ghasemi AR, Mohammadi-Fesharaki M, Mohandes M. Three-Phase Micromechanical Analysis of Residual Stresses in Reinforced Fiber by Carbon Nanotubes. J Compos Mat 2016; DOI: 10.1177/0021998316669854.
32
[33] Zhao LG, Warrior LA, Long AC. A Micromechanical Study of Residual Stress and Its Effect on Transverse Failure in Polymer–Matrix Composites. Int J sol struct 2006; 43: 5449-5467.
33
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Study of Laminated Composite MEMS and NEMS Performance in Nano Metric Operations
Precision of nano-metric operations is an important issue in nano-engineering studies. Several operative parameters might affect the quality of results. The parameters of the nano world are significant but not entirely controllable. However, the geometrical and mechanical properties of micro cantilevers are completely controllable. So, controlling the sensitivity of resulting image through t lamination design could be a proper approach. This paper analyses the effects of composite lamination on the performance of common Micro and Nano Electro Mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS, respectively). Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) and Generalized Differential Quadrature Element (GDQE) methods are used as semi-analytic solutions for regular and irregular domains, respectively. Validity, applicability and accuracy of the proposed approach are demonstrated and then the lamination effects on the nano-imaging and manipulation of nano particles by micro cantilevers are studied. This study shows that some laminations of micro cantilevers resulted in a better performance in nano-manipulation and imaging. Furthermore, clarifying the dependency of system sensitivity on the profile of the substrate is remarkable.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_495_f35307a1fdd13aa89d258769c988f59b.pdf
2017-04-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
19
31
10.22075/macs.2016.495
Laminated Composite
MEMS and NEMS
GDQM
GDQEM
Nano-manipulation
Sadegh
Sadeghzadeh
sadeghzadeh@iust.ac.ir
true
1
School of new Technology, Iran University of Science and Technology
School of new Technology, Iran University of Science and Technology
School of new Technology, Iran University of Science and Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Moharram
Habibnejad Korayem
hkorayem@iust.ac.ir
true
2
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
AUTHOR
Ahmad
Homayooni
homayooni@iust.ac.ir
true
3
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
Iran University of Science and Technology
AUTHOR
[1] Uchino K. Piezoelectric Actuators 2004–Materials, Design, Drive/Control, Modeling and Applications. Proc 9th Int Conf New Actuators; 2004.
1
[2] Lee S, Kim J, Moon W, Choi J, Park I, Bae D. A multibody-based dynamic simulation method for electrostatic actuators. Nonlinear Dyn 2008; 54: 53-68.
2
[3] Lim YH, Varadan VV, Varadan VK. Finite-element modeling of the transient response of MEMS sensors. Smart Mater Struct 1997; 6: 53-61.
3
[4] Beek JV, Puers R. A review of MEMS oscillators for frequency reference and timing applications. J Micro-mechanics Micro-engineering 2011; 22: 013001.
4
[5] Korayem M, Rahneshin V, Sadeghzadeh S. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of au-tomatic nanomanipulation process: The effect of tip damage on the positioning errors. Comput Mater Sci 2012; 60: 201-211.
5
[6] Korayem M, Rahneshin V, Sadeghzadeh S. Nano cluster manipulation success considering flexi-bility of system: Coarse grained molecular dy-namics simulations. Scientia Iranica 2012; 19: 1288-1298.
6
[7] Darvizeh M, Darvizeh A, Ansari R, Sharma C. Buckling analysis of generally laminated compo-site plates (generalized differential quadrature rules versus Rayleigh–Ritz method). Compos Struct 2004; 63: 69-74.
7
[8] Hosseini-Hashemi S, Fadaee M, Taher HRD. Ex-act solutions for free flexural vibration of Lévy-type rectangular thick plates via third-order shear deformation plate theory. Appl Math Model 2011; 35: 708-727.
8
[9] Hashemi SH, Arsanjani M. Exact characteristic equations for some of classical boundary condi-tions of vibrating moderately thick rectangular plates. Int J Solids Struct 2005; 42: 819-853.
9
[10] Tornabene F. Free vibrations of anisotropic dou-bly-curved shells and panels of revolution with a free-form meridian resting on Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations. Compos Struct 2011; 94: 186-206.
10
[11] Balamurugan V, Narayanan S. A piezolaminated composite degenerated shell finite element for active control of structures with distributed pie-zosensors and actuators. Smart Mater Struct 2008; 17: 035031.
11
[12] Benjeddou A. Advances in piezoelectric finite element modeling of adaptive structural ele-ments: a survey. Comput Struct 2000; 76: 347-363.
12
[13] Tornabene F. 2D GDQ solution for free vibra-tions of anisotropic doubly-curved shells and panels of revolution. Compos Struct 2011; 93: 1854-1876.
13
[14] Hong C. Computational approach of piezoelectric shells by the GDQ method. Compos Struct 2010; 92: 811-816.
14
[15] Chen C. A differential quadrature element meth-od. Proc 1st Int Conf Eng Comput Sim; 1995.
15
[16] Korayem M, Sadeghzadeh S, Homayooni A. Semi-analytical motion analysis of nano-steering de-vices, segmented piezotube scanners. Int J Mech Sci 2011; 53: 536-548.
16
[17] Korayem M, Homayooni A, Sadeghzadeh S, Safa M, Rahneshin V. A semi-analytic modeling of nonlinearities for nano-robotic applications, macro and micro sized systems. 2nd Int Conf Control, Instrumentation Automation; 2011.
17
[18] Sadeghzadeh S, Korayem MH, Rahneshin V, Homayooni A, Moradi M. Nanorobotic Applica-tions of Finite Element Method. Computation-al Finite Element Methods in Nanotechnology, Editor: Musa S. CRC Press: Taylor and Francis Corporation; 2012.
18
[19] Sadeghzadeh S, Korayem M, Rahneshin V, Homayooni A. A shape-feedback approach for more precise automatic nano manipulation pro-cess. 2nd Int Conf Control, Instrumentation and Automation; 2011.
19
[20] Hamed S, Ghader R. Comparison of generalized differential quadrature and Galerkin methods for the analysis of micro-electro-mechanical cou-pled systems. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Sim 2009; 14: 2807-2816.
20
[21] Collinger J, Wickert JA, Corr L. Adaptive piezoe-lectric vibration control with synchronized switching. J Dyn Sys Measurement Control 2009; 131: 041006.
21
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Improving Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposite-based Epoxy by High-impact Polystyrene and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Optimizing by a Mixture Design Approach
In the current study the influence of weight percentage of HIPS, weight percentage of CNT and hardener content on damping 1st and damping 2nd properties of epoxy/HIPS/CNT hybrid composite wase valuated. Mixture design methodology was employed to generate mathematical models for predicting damping 1st and damping 2nd behaviors of new mentioned hybrid nanocomposite as function of physical factors and optimizing desired mechanical properties. The maximum and minimum values of damping 1st occurred in run numbers 7 and 1 and were 3.71%and 1.64 % respectively, moreover maximum and minimum values of damping 2nd occurred in coded levels 9 and 1 with the values of 4.25% and 1.82 % respectively. Results of analysis of variance showed that input variables had linear effect on both of the studied responses, also two component interactions X1*X2, X1*X3 and X2*X3 affected damping 1st and damping 2nd due to their obtained P-values. Optimization results described that the highest value for damping 1st and damping 2nd were 3.53% and 4.11% respectively.Coded values were HIPS= 0.222, CNT= 0.301 and hardener= 0.476 and corresponding mixture components were HIPS=4.18wt%, CNT= 1.12 wt% and hardener= 25.75phr respectively.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2273_3bd8f07ef567b8d24e0cd036d844fa64.pdf
2017-04-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
33
45
10.22075/macs.2017.1580.1076
Carbon fibre
Hybrid
Laminates
Mechanical Properties
Mixture Design
Yasser
Rostamiyan
y.rostamiyan@yahoo.com
true
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Xu M, Hu J, Zou X, Liu M, Dong S, Zou Y. Mechanical and thermal enhancements of benzoxazine-based GF composite laminated by in situ reaction with carboxyl functionalized CNTs. J Appl Polym Sci 2013; 129(5): 2629-2637.
1
[2] Eronat N, Candan U, Turkun M. Effects of glass fiber layering on the flexural strength of microfill and hybrid composites. J Esthetic Restorative Dentistry 2009; 21(3): 171-178.
2
[3] Wu X, Wang Y, Xie L, Yu J, Liu F, Jiang P. Thermal and electrical properties of epoxy composites at high alumina loadings and various temperatures. Iranian Polym J 2013; 22(1): 61-73.
3
[4] LeBaron PC, Wang Z, Pinnavaia TJ, Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: an overview. Appl Clay Sci 1999; 15(1-2): 11-29.
4
[5] Vallittu PK. Flexural properties of acrylic resin polymers reinforced with unidirectional and woven glass fibers. J Prosthetic Dentistry 2009; 81(3): 318-326.
5
[6] Rostamiyan Y, Fereidoon A, Rezaeiashtiyani M, Mashhadzadeh AH, Salmankhani A. Experimental and optimizing flexural strength of epoxy-based nanocomposite: Effect of using nano silica and nano clay by using response surface design methodology. Mater Des 2015; 69: 96-104.
6
[7] Rostamiyan Y, Fereidoon A, Mashhadzadeh AH, Ashtiyani MR, Salmankhani A. Using response surface methodology for modeling and optimizing tensile and impact strength properties of fiber orientated quaternary hybrid nano composite. Compos Part B: Eng 2015; 69: 304-316.
7
[8] Panthapulakkal S, Sain M. Injection-molded short hemp fiber/glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites - Mechanical, water absorption and thermal properties. J Appl Polym Sci 2007; 103(4): 2432-2441.
8
[9] Bekyarova E, Thostenson ET, Yu A, Kim H, Gao J, Tang J. Multiscale carbon nanotube-carbon fiber reinforcement for advanced epoxy composites. Langmuir 2007; 23(7): 3970-3974.
9
[10] Godara A, Mezzo L, Luizi F, Warrier A, Lomov SV, van Vuure AW. Influence of carbon nanotube reinforcement on the processing and the mechanical behaviour of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Carbon 2009; 47(12): 2914-2923.
10
[11] Xu Y, Hoa SV. Mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 2008; 68(3-4): 854-861.
11
[12] Gojny FH, Wichmann MHG, Fiedler B, Bauhofer W, Schulte K. Influence of nano-modification on the mechanical and electrical properties of conventional fibre-reinforced composites. Compos Part A: Appl Sci Manuf 2005; 36(11): 1525-1535.
12
[13] Akbari R, Beheshty M, Shervin M. Toughening of dicyandiamide-cured DGEBA-based epoxy resins by CTBN liquid rubber. Iran Polym J 2013; 22(5): 313-324.
13
[14] Ragosta G, Musto P, Scarinzi G, Mascia L, Epoxy-silica particulatenanocomposites: Chemical interactions, reinforcement and fracture toughness Polym 2005; 46: 10506-10516.
14
[15] Mirmohseni A., Zavareh S. Epoxy/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer/clay ternary nanocomposite as impact toughened epoxy. J Polym Res 2010; 17(2): 191-201.
15
[16] Becker O, Varley RJ, Simon GP. Thermal stability and water uptake of high performance epoxy layered silicate nanocomposites. Eur Polym J 2004; 40(1): 187-195.
16
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[19] Rostamiyan Y, Fereidoon AB. Preparation, Modeling, and optimization of mechanical properties of epoxy/HIPS/silica hybrid nanocomposite using combination of central composite design and genetic algorithm. Part 1. Study of damping and tensile strengths. Strength Mater 2013; 45(5): 619-634.
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[20] Fereidoon A, Mashhadzadeh HA, Rostamiyan Y, Experimental, modeling and optimization study on the mechanical properties of epoxy/high-impact polystyrene/multi-walled carbon nanotube ternary nanocomposite using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm, J Sci Eng Compos Mater 2013; 20(3): 265-276.
20
[21] Rostamiyan Y, Fereidoon AB, Mashhadzadeh AH, Khalili MA. Augmenting epoxy toughness by combination of both thermoplastic and nanolayered materials and using artificial intelligence techniques for modeling and optimization. J Polym Res 2013; 20(6): 1-11.
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[24] Leardi R. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial. Analytica Chimica Acta 2009; 652(1-2): 161-172.
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[25] Zhang C, Wong WK. Optimal designs for mixture models with amount constraints. Statistics Probability Let 2013; 83(1): 196-202.
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[26] Rostamiyan Y, Mashhadzadeh AH, Salman Khani A. Optimization of mechanical properties of epoxy-based hybrid nanocomposite: Effect of using nano silica and high-impact polystyrene by mixture design approach. Mater Des 2014; 56: 1068-1077.
26
[27] Rostamiyan Y, Fereidoon A, Ghasemi Ghalebahman A, Mashhadzadeh AH, Salmankhani A. Experimental study and optimization of damping properties of epoxy-based nanocomposite: Effect of using nanosilica and high-impact polystyrene by mixture design approach. Mater Des 2015; 65: 1236-1244.
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[28] Rostamiyan Y, Mashhadzadeh AH, Fereidoon A. Investigation of damping and toughness properties of epoxy-based nanocomposite using different reinforcement mechanisms: Polymeric alloying, nanofiber, nanolayered, and nanoparticulate materials. J Sci Eng Compos Mater 2015; 22(3): 223-229.
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[29] Pionteck J, Muller Y, Haubler L. Reactive epoxy-CTBN rubber blends: Reflection of changed curing mechanism in cure shrinkage and phase separation behaviour. Macromolecular Symposia 2011; 306-307(1): 126-140.
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[30] Lopez J, Ramirez C, Abad MJ, Barral L, Cano J, Diez FJ. Blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene with an epoxy/cycloaliphatic amine resin: Phase-separation behavior and morphologies. J ApplPolym Sci 2002; 85(6): 1277-1286.
30
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
On the Buckling the Behavior of a Multiphase Smart Plate based on a Higher-order Theory
Magneto-electro-elastic materials are multiphase smart materials that exhibit coupling among electrical, magnetic and mechanical energy fields. Due to this ability, they have been the topic of numerous research in the past decade. In this paper, buckling behavior of a multiphase magneto-electro-elastic rectangular plate with simply supported boundary conditions is investigated, based on Reddy’s higher-order shear deformation theory. Gauss’s laws for electrostatics and magnetostatics are used to model the electric and magnetic behaviors of the plate. The partial differential equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by using the Galerkin method. Then, the closed-form expression for the critical buckling load of the plate considered is obtained. Some examples are presented to validate the study and to investigate the effects of some parameters on the critical buckling loads of the multiphase magneto-electro-elastic rectangular plates. It is found that the buckling behavior of the magneto-electro-elastic plate is dominated by the elastic properties of the plate, and magneto-electric coefficients slightly increase the critical buckling load of the plate.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_485_c868b22f717139ca4a769fdb3136f82c.pdf
2017-04-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
47
58
10.22075/macs.2016.485
Analytical solution
Buckling load
Higher-order plate theory
Magneto-electro-elastic coupling
Smart plate
Soheil
Razavi
soheilrazavi@outlook.com
true
1
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
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52
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Free Vibration and Buckling Analyses of Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Plates Reinforced by Carbon Nanotube
This paper describes the application of refined plate theory to investigate free vibration and buckling analyses of functionally graded nanocomposite plates reinforced by aggregated carbon nanotube (CNT). The refined shear deformation plate theory (RSDT) uses four independent unknowns and accounts for a quadratic variation of the transverse shear strains across the thickness, satisfying the zero traction boundary conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. The motion equations are derived from Hamilton’s energy principle and Navier’s method is applied to solve this equation. The material properties of the functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are assumed to vary along the thickness and estimated with the Mori–Tanaka approach. Effects on the natural frequency and critical buckling load of the FG-CNTRC plates by CNT volume fraction, CNT distribution, CNT cluster distribution, and geometric dimensions of the plate are investigated. Effects of loading conditions on the critical buckling load are also examined.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_496_da40d6ffd5d8f34564ee36a6c5c7135b.pdf
2017-04-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
59
73
10.22075/macs.2016.496
Mori–Tanaka approach
Refined plate theory
Aggregated carbon nanotubes
Free Vibration
Buckling
Rasool
Moradi-dastjerdi
rasoul.moradi@iaukhsh.ac.ir
true
1
Young Researchers and Elite Club,Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club,Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club,Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hosein
Malek-Mohammadi
hoseinmm15@yahoo.com
true
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan
AUTHOR
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[23] Shen HS, Postbuckling of nanotube-reinforced composite cylindrical shells in thermal environments, Part I: Axially-loaded shells. Compos struct, 2011; 93: 2096-20108.
23
[24] Mehrabadi SJ, Sobhani Aragh B, Khoshkhahesh V, Taherpour A, Mechanical buckling of nanocomposite rectangular plate reinforced by aligned and strait single-walled carbon nanotubes. Compos Part B, 2012; 43: 2031-2040.
24
[25] Mori T, Tanaka K, Average stress in matrix and average elastic energy of materials with Misfitting inclusions. Acta Metallurgica, 1973; 21: 571-574.
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[26] Yas MH, Heshmati M, Dynamic analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite beams reinforced by randomly oriented carbon nanotube under the action of moving load. Applied Math Modelling, 2012; 36: 1371-1394.
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[27] Sobhani Aragh B, Nasrollah Barati AH, Hedayati H, Eshelby–Mori–Tanaka approach for vibrational behavior of continuously graded carbon nanotube–reinforced cylindrical panels. Compos Part B, 2012; 43: 1943-1954.
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[28] Pourasghar A, Yas MH, Kamarian S, Local aggregation effect of CNT on the vibrational behavior of four-parameter continuous grading nanotube-reinforced cylindrical panels. Polymer Compos, 2013; 34: 707-721.
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[29] Moradi-Dastjerdi R, Pourasghar A, Foroutan M, The effects of carbon nanotube orientation and aggregation on vibrational behavior of functionally graded nanocomposite cylinders by a mesh-free method. Acta Mech, 2013; 224: 2817-2832.
29
[30] Tahouneh, V, Eskandari-Jam, J, A Semi-analytical Solution for 3-D Dynamic Analysis of Thick Continuously Graded Carbon Nanotube-reinforced Annular Plates Resting on a Two-parameter Elastic Foundation, Mech Adv compos struct, 2014; 1, 113-130.
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[31] Tahouneh, V, Yas, MH, Influence of equivalent continuum model based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka scheme on the vibrational response of elastically supported thick continuously graded carbon nanotube-reinforced annular plates, Polym Compos, 2014; 35, 1644-1661.
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[36] Zenkour AM, The refined sinusoidal theory for FGM plates on elastic foundations, Inter J Mech Sci, 2009; 51, 869-880.
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[37] Merdaci S, Tounsi A, Houari MS, Mechab I, Hebali H, Benyoucef S, Two new refined shear displacement models for functionally graded sandwich plates. Archive Applied Mech, 2011; 81: 1507-1522.
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[41] Moradi-Dastjerdi, R, Payganeh, G, Malek-Mohammadi, H, Free Vibration Analyses of Functionally Graded CNT Reinforced Nanocomposite Sandwich Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation, J solid mech, 2015; 7, 158-172
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[42] Khorshid, K, Fallah, A, Buckling analysis of functionally graded rectangular nano-plate based on nonlocal exponential shear deformation theory, Inter J Mech Sci, 2016; 113, 94-104.
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[44] Khorshidi, K, Khodadadi, M, Precision Closed-form Solution for Out-of-plane Vibration of Rectangular Plates via Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory, Mech Adv Compos Struct, 2016; 3, 31-43.
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[45] Ait Atmane H, Tounsi A, Mechab I, Adda Bedia EA, Free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates resting on Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundations using a new shear deformation theory. Inter J Mech Mater Des, 2010; 6: 113-121.
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[46] Shi DL, Feng XQ, Yonggang YH, Hwang KC, Gao, H, The effect of nanotube waviness and agglomeration on the elastic property of carbon nanotube reinforced composites. J Eng Mater Technol, 2004; 126, 250-257.
46
[47] Prylutskyy YI, Durov SS, Ogloblya OV, Buzaneva EV, Scharff P, Molecular dynamics simulation of mechanical, vibrational and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes. Comput Mater Sci, 2000; 17: 352-355.
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48
[49] Barai P, Weng GJ, A theory of plasticity for carbon nanotube reinforced composite. Inter J Plast Technol, 2011; 27: 539-559.
49
[50] Matsunaga H, Free vibration and stability of functionally graded plates according to a 2D higher-order deformation theory. Compos struct, 2008; 82: 499-512.
50
[51] Bodaghi M, Saidi AR, Levy-type solution for buckling analysis of thick functionally graded rectangular plates based on the higher-order shear deformation plate theory. Appl Math Modelling, 2010; 34, 3659-3673.
51
[52] Thai, HT, Choi, DH, An efficient and simple refined theory for buckling analysis of functionally graded plates. Appl Math Modelling, 2012; 36: 1008-1022.
52
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A Numerical and Analytical Solution for the Free Vibration of Laminated Composites Using Different Plate Theories
An analytical and numerical solution for the free vibration of laminated polymeric composite plates with different layups is studied in this paper. The governing equations of the laminated composite plates are derived from the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT) and the first-order shear deformation plate theory (FSDT). General layups are evaluated by the assumption of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated plates. The solver is coded in MATLAB. As a verification method, a finite element code using ANSYS is also developed. The effects of lamination angle, plate aspect ratio and modulus ratio on the fundamental natural frequencies of a laminated composite are also investigated and good agreement is found between the results evaluated and those available in the open literature. The results show that the fundamental frequency increases with the modular ratio and the bending-stretching coupling lowers the vibration frequencies for both cross-ply and angle-ply laminates with the CLPT. Also it is found that the effect of bending-stretching coupling, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia is to lower the fundamental frequencies.
http://macs.journals.semnan.ac.ir/article_2278_4c7f1a6972cd9834d060b86b27244a48.pdf
2017-04-01T11:23:20
2018-10-18T11:23:20
75
87
10.22075/macs.2017.1768.1090
Free Vibration
laminated composites
plate theories
numerical method
analytical method
Mohammad Amin
Torabizadeh
torabizadeh@yahoo.com
true
1
University of Applied Science and Technology
University of Applied Science and Technology
University of Applied Science and Technology
LEAD_AUTHOR
Abdolhossein
Fereidoon
ab.fereidoon@gmail.com
true
2
University of Semnan
University of Semnan
University of Semnan
AUTHOR
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